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Common Ingredient Substitutions

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The following is a list of substitutions for common cooking ingredients.

ITEM AMOUNT SUBSTITUTION
Allspice 1 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon plus
1/8 teaspoon ground cloves
Arrowroot, as thickener 1–1/2 teaspoons 1 tablespoon flour
Baking powder 1 teaspoon 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus
5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar
Bread crumbs, dry 1/4 cup 1 slice bread
Bread crumbs, soft 1/2 cup 1 slice bread
Buttermilk 1 cup 1 cup plain yogurt
Chocolate, unsweetened 1 ounce 3 tablespoons cocoa
plus 1 tablespoon butter or fat
Cracker crumbs 3/4 cup 1 cup dry bread crumbs
Cream, heavy 1 cup 3/4 cup milk plus
1/3 cup melted butter
(this will not whip)
Cream, light 1 cup 7/8 cup milk plus
3 tablespoons melted butter
Cream, sour 1 cup 7/8 cup buttermilk or plain yogurt
plus 3 tablespoons melted butter
Cream, whipping 1 cup 2/3 cup well-chilled evaporated milk, whipped; or 1 cup nonfat dry milk powder whipped with 1 cup ice water
Flour, all-purpose 1 cup 1–1/8 cups cake flour; or 5/8 cup potato flour; or 1–1/4 cups rye flour or coarsely ground whole-grain flour;
or 1 cup cornmeal
Flour, cake 1 cup 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons sifted all-purpose flour
Flour, self-rising 1 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1–1/4 teaspoons baking powder plus 1/4 teaspoon salt
Garlic 1 small clove 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder or instant minced garlic
Herbs, dried 1/2 to 1 teaspoon 1 tablespoon fresh herbs, minced and packed
Honey 1 cup 1–1/4 cups sugar plus 1/2 cup liquid
Lemon juice 1 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon vinegar
Lemon, juice and rind 1 3 tablespoons bottled lemon juice and 1 teaspoon dried grated rind
Lemon rind, grated 1 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon lemon extract
Milk, skim 1 cup 1/3 cup instant nonfat dry milk
plus 3/4 cup water
Milk, sour 1 cup 1 cup minus 1 tablespoon milk plus 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice. Stir and let stand 5 minutes.
Milk, whole 1 cup 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water; or 1 cup skim milk plus 2 teaspoons melted butter
Mustard, prepared 1 tablespoon 1 teaspoon dry or powdered mustard
Onion, chopped 1 small 1 tablespoon instant minced onion;
or 1 teaspoon onion powder;
or 1/4 cup frozen chopped onion
Sugar, granulated 1 cup 1 cup firmly packed brown sugar;
or 1–3/4 cups confectioners' sugar (do not substitute in baking); or 1/2 cup honey; or 1 cup superfine sugar; or 1–1/2 cups corn syrup; or 2/3 cup maple syrup (for last two, reduce liquid in recipe by 25 percent)
Tomatoes, canned 1 cup 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water; or 1–1/3 cups chopped fresh tomatoes, simmered
Tomato juice 1 cup 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water plus dash each salt and sugar; or 1/4 cup tomato paste plus 3/4 cup water plus salt and sugar, to taste
Tomato ketchup 1/2 cup 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 2 tablespoons sugar, 1 tablespoon vinegar, and 1/8 teaspoon ground cloves
Tomato puree 1 cup 1/2 cup tomato paste plus 1/2 cup water
Tomato soup 1 can (10–3/4 oz.) 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 cup water
Vanilla 1-inch bean 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
Yeast 1 cake (3/5 oz.) 1 package active dry yeast
Yogurt, plain 1 cup 1 cup buttermilk

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