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Sky Watch: April 2014

Our galaxy, the Milky Way. Credit: NASA

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Here are the monthly sky watch highlights. Each month, we share the wonders of the universe to help you explore the night sky from your own backyard. (Note: Times listed below are ET.)

April 2014

by Bob Berman, as featured in
The Old Farmer's Almanac

The Moon glides below Jupiter on the 6th of April.  

Mars reaches opposition on the 8th and is closest to Earth on the 14th, which will make the Red Planet easy to spot in the night sky.

At opposition, the planet Mars, Earth, and the Sun are arranged in a nearly-straight line. The oppositions of Mars only happens every 26 months. Mars rises in the east at sunset and will shine overhead around midnight—at magnitude 1.5, matching the brilliance of the Dog Star, Sirius. Mars is slightly larger—at 15 arcseconds—than at its last opposition in 2012.

Vesta, the brightest asterioid at –5.8, reaches opposition on the 13th in Virgo. It can be seen by the naked eye as a dim object centered between the stars Spica and Arcturus. The Moon comes close to Spica and Mars on the 14th.

Remarkably, on the same night that Mars is closest to Earth, there will be a total eclipse of the Moon. On April 14-15, the lunar eclipse will be visible throughout the United States and Canada. The partial phase begins at 1:58 A.M.; totality starts at 3:06 A.M. Only the western states will see the end of the event. See our 2014 eclipse page here.

Sky Map

Astronomer Jeff DeTray has created the sky map below to help you navigate the APRIL sky. 
Visit Jeff's site at AstronomyBoy.com

This month's highlight: A total eclipse of the Moon.

The night of April 14–15 offers one of the most spectacular sky gazing sights of this year—a total eclipse of the Moon. When the Earth, Sun, and Moon are in the proper alignment, we are treated to a lunar eclipse. In simple terms, the Earth is positioned between the Sun and Moon, causing the shadow of the Earth to darken the face of the Moon. All of the continental United States will see this event.

The geometry of a lunar eclipse is shown below.

The Moon produces no light of its own. We see the Moon because it reflects sunlight; the Moon is illuminated by the Sun. When the Earth blocks the Sun's light from reaching the Moon, we see a lunar eclipse.

A lunar eclipse unfolds slowly over the course of a few hours, so you'll have plenty of time to catch the action. On the night of the eclipse the Moon, in its orbit around the Earth, will first enter the outer portion of the Earth's shadow, the penumbra. This occurs at about 1:20 a.m. Eastern time (ET), 10:20 p.m. Pacific time (PT). Don't expect to see anything dramatic right away. It will take 20-25 minutes before the face of the silvery-white Moon begins to dim to a silver-gray as it moves deeper into the penumbra, and the Earth blocks more and more of the sunlight.

At 1:58 a.m. ET (10:58 p.m. PT), the Moon enters the darkest portion of the Earth's shadow, the umbra. This is the REAL beginning of the eclipse; everything  so far has been just a warmup. It takes a little more than an hour for the Moon to move completely into the umbra, and during this time the appearance of the Moon changes drastically. You'll notice the Moon becoming dimmer and dimmer. More impressively, the color of the Moon starts to change. From its silvery color, the Moon begins to turn a reddish-orange, as shown in the photo on this month's Sky Map.

The actual hue of the reddish coloration varies from one lunar eclipse to another. Sometimes the color is described as that of a copper penny; other times it's more like that of a pumpkin. But why orange and not some other color?

Think about a sunrise or sunset. We've all noticed how the rising or setting Sun takes on a distinctly reddish-orange color when near the horizon. This happens because when the Sun is low in the sky, its light shines through a great deal of our Earth's atmosphere before reaching our eyes. All that atmosphere reddens the sunlight. The same thing happens during a lunar eclipse. As sunlight shines past the edge of the Earth, it passes through the Earth's atmosphere and is reddened, exactly like a sunrise or sunset. The reddened light strikes the Moon and makes the Moon appear reddish-orange.

The Moon moves entirely within the umbra by 3:06 a.m. ET (12:06 a.m. PT) and stays there for more than an hour. It's during this time that the Moon will be at its dimmest and reddest. Then, starting at 4:25 a.m. ET (1:25 a.m. PT), the whole process will occur in reverse. The Moon will slowly move out of the umbra and into the penumbra, turning from reddish-orange back to silver-gray. Eventually, the Moon will move out of the penumbra and return to its normal bright, silvery-white color.

Reserve the night of April 14-15 for this wonderful event. If you can't stay up for the entire eclipse, one observing strategy is get some sleep early and set your alarm for shortly before the Moon enters the umbra—say 1:45 a.m. ET (10:45 p.m. PT). You'll miss the early stages of the eclipse but awake in time to watch the Moon undergo its dramatic color change to reddish-orange.

APRIL Sky Map: Click to View PDF

April 2014 Sky Map

Sky map produced using Chris Marriott's Skymap Pro

Explore the sky night from your own backyard. A printable black and white map is provided below!

April 2014 Sky Map PrintableClick for Printable Sky Map (PDF)
Just click, print, and bring outside!

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Comments

Why is there nothing on this

By elsa leslie

Why is there nothing on this page about the Lyrid meteor shower?

The Lyrids are weak this

By Almanac Staff

The Lyrids are weak this yearactive in the moonlight before dawn. (Even in years with no moonlight, expect just 10 Lyrids per hour.)

See our Meteor Shower page for a list of all the showers and detail:

http://www.almanac.com/content/meteor-showers-guide

Hi Elsa - You are quite right

By Jeff DeTray

Hi Elsa -

You are quite right that the Lyrid meteor shower is occurring now. Typically, the Lyrids produce around 20 meteors per hour.

The circumstances for this year's shower are not particularly favorable. The best viewing time is between midnight and 3:00 a.m. After that, the bright rising Moon will begin to interfere by making the sky too bright to see the fainter meteors.

We cover the most important celestial events on this page, and the total lunar eclipse was this month's major highlight. We will discuss meteor showers in the future but will concentrate on those that promise the best show.

Jeff DeTray
http://www.AstronomyBoy.com

I am in East London South

By Rozelene

I am in East London South Africa when will I c the full eclipse and how do I get a map chart free pl and thank u

Hi Rozelene - The next total

By Jeff DeTray

Hi Rozelene -

The next total lunar eclipse visible from South Africa will be on September 28, 2015. You will not need a map to find the eclipse. The Moon will be the biggest and brightest object in the night sky. You can't miss it -- unless it is cloudy that night!

Jeff DeTray
http://www.AstronomyBoy.com

I live in Sweden, tried to

By Åza Eriksson

I live in Sweden, tried to photo the eclipse at 0230-0300 The night between 14-15 april. Could not see the eclipse?

Hello Åza - As you

By Jeff DeTray

Hello Åza -

As you discovered, last night's eclipse was not visible from Sweden. Unlike some celestial events, each lunar eclipse is visible only in a specific geographic region.

The next lunar eclipse visible from Sweden will occur on September 28, 2015.

Jeff DeTray
http://www.AstronomyBoy.com

The sky is clear and this

By mary y

The sky is clear and this event is awesome. Watched the changing of the colors, Mars shining bright in the sky. Glad my dogs woke me up to go outside...the eclipse had started. Freaking groovy. Hippie chick.

If the sky is cloudy where

By Jeff DeTray

If the sky is cloudy where you live, you can watch the eclipse live and in real time at:

http://live.slooh.com/

The site includes a running commentary from experts.

This is where I am watching the eclipse because it is cloudy here in Ohio. In fact, it's snowing!

You can also watch at NASA's web site:

http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/nasatv/index.html

Jeff DeTray
http://www.AstronomyBoy.com

I am visiting in Warsaw,

By Sherry Koob

I am visiting in Warsaw, Poland, what time will I see it?

So looking forward to

By Diana Thomas

So looking forward to this!!!
thank you very much!!!
Q... What if the sky is not clear???
Will it still be visible?!!

i live in missouri . will i

By Dale Eisenhauer

i live in missouri . will i be able to see the eclipse and if so at what time will it start ?

So in the UK on the 15th, the

By Christine L Ford

So in the UK on the 15th, the moon will change colour at about 1.45 am??

Will this moon be seen from

By Danyelle Curtis

Will this moon be seen from McKenzie TN?

I am in Long Beach, PST, what

By Maleea Ehuan

I am in Long Beach, PST, what can I expect? And what time?

Very informative article . I

By Danielle Parent

Very informative article . I am in Hamilton Ontario Canada I would love to be able to photograph the moon in the orange phase like this. What time should I be ready and set it up for ? Hopefully the weather will be good and we will enjoy a clear sky. Thank you!

I have central time so, at

By Wayne Fontenot

I have central time so, at what time will I be able to start seeing the lunar eclipse?

12:20 AM will be the

By Jon Swalby

12:20 AM will be the beginning for you. You are one hour earlier than the posted eastern times.

This is a very informative

By Dawn Yule

This is a very informative article. I am so excited to see This.

I study alil in school and it

By sonia salas

I study alil in school and it like never got to study it as much .I love looking at the moon ever night it so beautiful ...and I want to no more about the moon.

It's very interesting to know

By Carol Camicia

It's very interesting to know why it changes to orange.

When was the last blood moon?

By Paulette Thompson

When was the last blood moon?

Will the eclipse happen in

By Sorrel Dod

Will the eclipse happen in the Caribbean- 12 degrees North- Grenada?

This is a very informative

By Alice Spicer

This is a very informative article. Thanks for the heads up about the eclipse. I can't wait to try out my new camera on the night of April 14th-15th.

Love utilizing the sky map.

By K. Riha

Love utilizing the sky map. Will it be posted sometime soon?

Thanks for the reminder (and

By Almanac Staff

Thanks for the reminder (and kind words). We'll post it today!

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