Consult the Windchill Chart below to avoid severe cold—and frostbite.
Also, see the tips below on windchill hazards and what to do.
Click to expand Canadian Windchill Chart (PDF).
- If windchill is below -10° C, there is low risk of frostbite but there is risk of hypothermia if outside for long times without adequate protection. Wear insulated layers and footwear with a wind-resistant outer layer and waterproof footwear. Stay dry and active.
- Below -28° C, there is added risk of frostbite. Exposed skin can freeze in 10 to 30 minutes. Check face and extremities for numbness or whiteness. Cover all exposed skin on top of the precautions listed above.
- Below -40° C, high risk of frostbite means exposed skin can freeze in 5 to 10 minutes (and faster in winds over 50 km/h). All skin MUST be covered. See precautions above.
- Below -48° C, very high risk of frostbite means exposed skin can freeze in 2 to 5 minutes (and faster in winds over 50 km/h). Cut short or cancel outdoor activities.
- Below -55° C, extremely high risk means skin will freeze in less than 2 minutes (and faster in winds over 50 km/h). Very dangerous. Outdoor conditions are hazardous. Stay indoors.