When determining the best planting dates in the spring for seeds, the date of the last spring frost is important to your success. NOTE: Our chart calculates U.S. frost dates only, based on historical data. Other factors can also influence planting dates, including soil temperature, altitude and slope of land, nearby waters, and day length. Keep records of your garden's conditions each year to plan more accurately.
- Seeds for plants with a long growing season should be started indoors during the periods shown below.
- Seeds for plants sown in the ground should be planted during the periods shown.
- When no dates appear in the chart, that starting method is not recommended for the particular vegetable.
- To start transplants, see our Best Dates to Transplant (by region).
Planting by the Moon?
Above-ground crops are planted during the light of the Moon (new to full); below-ground crops are planted during the dark of the Moon (from the day after it is full to the day before it is new again). Planting is done in the daytime; planting at night is optional!
This chart includes the most popular crops. For more information, consult your cooperative extension.
Click on the underlined crops below for free "how to" plant and grow guides!
50% probability of frost free after March 1 (at SACRAMENTO AP, CA climate station).
|Crop||Start Seeds Indoors||Moon-favorable Dates||Set Out Plants/|
Start Seeds Outdoors
|Beans||Mar 8-29||Mar 8-16|
|Beets||Feb 15-Mar 8||Feb 15-28|
|Broccoli||Jan 18-Feb 1||Jan 30-Feb 1||Feb 8-Mar 1||Feb 8-14, Mar 1|
|Brussels sprouts||Jan 18-Feb 1||Jan 30-Feb 1||Feb 1-22||Feb 1-14|
|Cabbage||Jan 4-18||Jan 4-15||Feb 1-15||Feb 1-14|
|Carrots||Jan 25-Feb 8||Jan 25-29|
|Cauliflower||Jan 18-Feb 1||Jan 30-Feb 1||Feb 1-15||Feb 1-14|
|Celery||Dec 21-Jan 4||Jan 1- 4||Mar 8-22||Mar 8-16|
|Collards||Jan 18-Feb 1||Jan 30-Feb 1||Feb 1-22||Feb 1-14|
|Corn||Mar 1-15||Mar 1-15|
|Cucumbers||Feb 1- 8||Feb 1- 8||Mar 15-Apr 5||Mar 15-16, Mar 30-Apr 5|
|Eggplant||Dec 21-Jan 4||Jan 1- 4||Mar 15-Apr 5||Mar 15-16, Mar 30-Apr 5|
|Kale||Jan 18-Feb 1||Jan 30-Feb 1||Feb 1-22||Feb 1-14|
|Kohlrabi||Feb 1-22||Feb 1-14|
|Leeks||Dec 21-Jan 4||Jan 1- 4||Feb 1-22||Feb 1-14|
|Lettuce||Jan 18-Feb 1||Jan 30-Feb 1||Feb 15-Mar 15||Mar 1, Mar 2-15|
|Melons||Feb 1- 8||Feb 1- 8||Mar 15-Apr 5||Mar 15-16, Mar 30-Apr 5|
|Okra||Mar 15-29||Mar 15-16|
|Onion sets||Feb 1-22||Feb 15, Feb 16-22|
|Parsnips||Feb 8-Mar 1||Feb 15-28|
|Peas||Jan 18-Feb 8||Jan 30-Feb 8|
|Peppers||Dec 21-Jan 4||Jan 1- 4||Mar 15-Apr 5||Mar 15-16, Mar 30-Apr 5|
|Potato tubers||Feb 22-Mar 15||Feb 22-28|
|Pumpkins||Feb 1-15||Feb 1-14||Mar 15-Apr 5||Mar 15-16, Mar 30-Apr 5|
|Radishes||Jan 4-25||Jan 16-25|
|Spinach||Jan 18-Feb 8||Jan 30-Feb 8|
|Squash||Feb 1-15||Feb 1-14||Mar 15-Apr 5||Mar 15-16, Mar 30-Apr 5|
|Sweet Potatoes||Feb 1- 8||Mar 15-Apr 5||Mar 17-29|
|Swiss Chard||Jan 18-Feb 1||Jan 30-Feb 1||Feb 8-15||Feb 8-14|
|Tomatoes||Jan 4-18||Jan 4-15||Mar 8-29||Mar 8-16|
|Turnips||Feb 1-22||Feb 15, Feb 16-22|
|Watermelon||Feb 1- 8||Feb 1- 8||Mar 15-Apr 5||Mar 15-16, Mar 30-Apr 5|