When determining the best planting dates in the spring for seeds, the date of the last spring frost is important to your success. NOTE: Our chart calculates U.S. frost dates only, based on historical data. Other factors can also influence planting dates, including soil temperature, altitude and slope of land, nearby waters, and day length. Keep records of your garden's conditions each year to plan more accurately.
- Seeds for plants with a long growing season should be started indoors during the periods shown below.
- Seeds for plants sown in the ground should be planted during the periods shown.
- When no dates appear in the chart, that starting method is not recommended for the particular vegetable.
- To start transplants, see our Best Dates to Transplant (by region).
Planting by the Moon?
Above-ground crops are planted during the light of the Moon (new to full); below-ground crops are planted during the dark of the Moon (from the day after it is full to the day before it is new again). Planting is done in the daytime; planting at night is optional!
This chart includes the most popular crops. For more information, consult your cooperative extension.
Click on the underlined crops below for free "how to" plant and grow guides!
50% probability of frost free after December 24 (at LAGUNA BEACH, CA climate station).
|Crop||Start Seeds Indoors||Moon-favorable Dates||Start Seeds in the Ground||Moon-favorable Dates|
|Beans||Dec 24-Jan 7|
|Beets||Dec 3-Jan 14||Dec 18-Jan 14|
|Broccoli||Oct 29-Nov 12||Nov 3-12||Dec 3-10||Dec 3-10|
|Brussels sprouts||Oct 29-Nov 12||Nov 3-12|
|Cabbage||Oct 29-Nov 12||Nov 3-12||Dec 17-31||Dec 17|
|Carrots||Nov 19-Dec 3||Nov 19-Dec 1|
|Cauliflower||Oct 29-Nov 12||Nov 3-12||Dec 17-31||Dec 17|
|Celery||Oct 29-Nov 12||Nov 3-12|
|Cucumbers||Nov 26-Dec 10||Dec 2-10||Dec 31-Jan 7|
|Lettuce||Nov 12-26||Nov 12-17||Dec 17-Jan 7||Dec 17|
|Melons||Nov 26-Dec 10||Dec 2-10||Jan 7-14|
|Onion sets||Nov 26-Dec 3||Nov 26-Dec 1|
|Parsnips||Dec 3-24||Dec 18-24|
|Peas||Nov 12-26||Nov 12-17|
|Peppers||Oct 29-Nov 12||Nov 3-12|
|Potato tubers||Dec 24-Jan 7||Dec 24-Jan 7|
|Pumpkins||Nov 26-Dec 10||Dec 2-10||Dec 31-Jan 7|
|Radishes||Dec 17-31||Dec 18-31|
|Spinach||Nov 12-26||Nov 12-17|
|Squash, summer||Nov 26-Dec 10||Dec 2-10||Dec 31-Jan 7|
|Squash, winter||Nov 26-Dec 10||Dec 2-10||Dec 31-Jan 7|
|Tomatoes||Oct 29-Nov 12||Nov 3-12|