When determining the best planting dates in the spring for seeds, the date of the last spring frost is important to your success. NOTE: Our chart calculates U.S. frost dates only, based on historical data. Other factors can also influence planting dates, including soil temperature, altitude and slope of land, nearby waters, and day length. Keep records of your garden's conditions each year to plan more accurately.
- Seeds for plants with a long growing season should be started indoors during the periods shown below.
- Seeds for plants sown in the ground should be planted during the periods shown.
- When no dates appear in the chart, that starting method is not recommended for the particular vegetable.
- To start transplants, see our Best Dates to Transplant (by region).
Planting by the Moon?
Above-ground crops are planted during the light of the Moon (new to full); below-ground crops are planted during the dark of the Moon (from the day after it is full to the day before it is new again). Planting is done in the daytime; planting at night is optional!
This chart includes the most popular crops. For more information, consult your cooperative extension.
Click on the underlined crops below for free "how to" plant and grow guides!
50% probability of frost free after April 18 (at INDIANAPOLIS SE SIDE, IN climate station).
|Crop||Start Seeds Indoors||Moon-favorable Dates||Set Out Plants/|
Start Seeds Outdoors
|Beans||Apr 25-May 16||Apr 29-May 14|
|Beets||Apr 4-25||Apr 16-25|
|Broccoli||Mar 6-21||Mar 6-16||Mar 28-Apr 18||Mar 30-Apr 15|
|Brussels sprouts||Mar 6-21||Mar 6-16||Mar 21-Apr 11||Mar 30-Apr 11|
|Cabbage||Feb 20-Mar 6||Mar 1- 6||Mar 21-Apr 4||Mar 30-Apr 4|
|Carrots||Mar 14-28||Mar 17-28|
|Cauliflower||Mar 6-21||Mar 6-16||Mar 21-Apr 4||Mar 30-Apr 4|
|Celery||Feb 6-20||Feb 6-14||Apr 25-May 9||Apr 29-May 9|
|Collards||Mar 6-21||Mar 6-16||Mar 21-Apr 11||Mar 30-Apr 11|
|Corn||Apr 18-May 2||Apr 29-May 2|
|Cucumbers||Mar 21-28||May 2-23||May 2-14|
|Eggplant||Feb 6-20||Feb 6-14||May 2-23||May 2-14|
|Kale||Mar 6-21||Mar 6-16||Mar 21-Apr 11||Mar 30-Apr 11|
|Kohlrabi||Mar 21-Apr 11||Mar 30-Apr 11|
|Leeks||Feb 6-20||Feb 6-14||Mar 21-Apr 11||Mar 30-Apr 11|
|Lettuce||Mar 6-21||Mar 6-16||Apr 4-May 2||Apr 4-15, Apr 29-May 2|
|Melons||Mar 21-28||May 2-23||May 2-14|
|Okra||May 2-16||May 2-14|
|Onion sets||Mar 21-Apr 11||Mar 21-29|
|Parsnips||Mar 28-Apr 18||Mar 28-29, Apr 16-18|
|Peas||Mar 6-28||Mar 6-16|
|Peppers||Feb 6-20||Feb 6-14||May 2-23||May 2-14|
|Potato tubers||Apr 11-May 2||Apr 16-28|
|Pumpkins||Mar 21-Apr 4||Mar 30-Apr 4||May 2-23||May 2-14|
|Radishes||Feb 20-Mar 14||Feb 20-28|
|Spinach||Mar 6-28||Mar 6-16|
|Squash||Mar 21-Apr 4||Mar 30-Apr 4||May 2-23||May 2-14|
|Sweet Potatoes||Mar 21-28||Mar 21-28||May 2-23||May 15-23|
|Swiss Chard||Mar 6-21||Mar 6-16||Mar 28-Apr 4||Mar 30-Apr 4|
|Tomatoes||Feb 20-Mar 6||Mar 1- 6||Apr 25-May 16||Apr 29-May 14|
|Turnips||Mar 21-Apr 11||Mar 21-29|
|Watermelon||Mar 21-28||May 2-23||May 2-14|