When determining the best planting dates in the spring for seeds, the date of the last spring frost is important to your success. NOTE: Our chart calculates U.S. frost dates only, based on historical data. Other factors can also influence planting dates, including soil temperature, altitude and slope of land, nearby waters, and day length. Keep records of your garden's conditions each year to plan more accurately.
- Seeds for plants with a long growing season should be started indoors during the periods shown below.
- Seeds for plants sown in the ground should be planted during the periods shown.
- When no dates appear in the chart, that starting method is not recommended for the particular vegetable.
- To start transplants, see our Best Dates to Transplant (by region).
Planting by the Moon?
Above-ground crops are planted during the light of the Moon (new to full); below-ground crops are planted during the dark of the Moon (from the day after it is full to the day before it is new again). Planting is done in the daytime; planting at night is optional!
This chart includes the most popular crops. For more information, consult your cooperative extension.
Click on the underlined crops below for free "how to" plant and grow guides!
50% probability of frost free after April 8 (at LOUISVILLE STANDIFORD AP, KY climate station).
|Crop||Start Seeds Indoors||Moon-favorable Dates||Set Out Plants/|
Start Seeds Outdoors
|Beans||Apr 15-May 6||Apr 15, Apr 30-May 6|
|Beets||Mar 25-Apr 15||Mar 25-29|
|Broccoli||Feb 24-Mar 11||Mar 1-11||Mar 18-Apr 8||Mar 30-Apr 8|
|Brussels sprouts||Feb 24-Mar 11||Mar 1-11||Mar 11-Apr 1||Mar 11-16, Mar 30-Apr 1|
|Cabbage||Feb 10-24||Feb 10-14||Mar 11-25||Mar 11-16|
|Carrots||Mar 3-18||Mar 17-18|
|Cauliflower||Feb 24-Mar 11||Mar 1-11||Mar 11-25||Mar 11-16|
|Celery||Jan 27-Feb 10||Jan 30-Feb 10||Apr 15-29||Apr 15|
|Collards||Feb 24-Mar 11||Mar 1-11||Mar 11-Apr 1||Mar 11-16, Mar 30-Apr 1|
|Corn||Apr 8-22||Apr 8-15|
|Cucumbers||Mar 11-18||Mar 11-16||Apr 22-May 13||Apr 29-May 13|
|Eggplant||Jan 27-Feb 10||Jan 30-Feb 10||Apr 22-May 13||Apr 29-May 13|
|Kale||Feb 24-Mar 11||Mar 1-11||Mar 11-Apr 1||Mar 11-16, Mar 30-Apr 1|
|Kohlrabi||Mar 11-Apr 1||Mar 11-16, Mar 30-Apr 1|
|Leeks||Jan 27-Feb 10||Jan 30-Feb 10||Mar 11-Apr 1||Mar 11-16, Mar 30-Apr 1|
|Lettuce||Feb 24-Mar 11||Mar 1-11||Mar 25-Apr 22||Mar 30-Apr 15|
|Melons||Mar 11-18||Mar 11-16||Apr 22-May 13||Apr 29-May 13|
|Okra||Apr 22-May 6||Apr 29-May 6|
|Onion sets||Mar 11-Apr 1||Mar 17-29|
|Parsnips||Mar 18-Apr 8||Mar 18-29|
|Peas||Feb 24-Mar 18||Mar 1-16|
|Peppers||Jan 27-Feb 10||Jan 30-Feb 10||Apr 22-May 13||Apr 29-May 13|
|Potato tubers||Apr 1-22||Apr 16-22|
|Pumpkins||Mar 11-25||Mar 11-16||Apr 22-May 13||Apr 29-May 13|
|Radishes||Feb 10-Mar 3||Feb 15-28|
|Spinach||Feb 24-Mar 18||Mar 1-16|
|Squash||Mar 11-25||Mar 11-16||Apr 22-May 13||Apr 29-May 13|
|Sweet Potatoes||Mar 11-18||Mar 17-18||Apr 22-May 13||Apr 22-28|
|Swiss Chard||Feb 24-Mar 11||Mar 1-11||Mar 18-25|
|Tomatoes||Feb 10-24||Feb 10-14||Apr 15-May 6||Apr 15, Apr 30-May 6|
|Turnips||Mar 11-Apr 1||Mar 17-29|
|Watermelon||Mar 11-18||Mar 11-16||Apr 22-May 13||Apr 29-May 13|