When determining the best planting dates in the spring for seeds, the date of the last spring frost is important to your success. NOTE: Our chart calculates U.S. frost dates only, based on historical data. Other factors can also influence planting dates, including soil temperature, altitude and slope of land, nearby waters, and day length. Keep records of your garden's conditions each year to plan more accurately.
- Seeds for plants with a long growing season should be started indoors during the periods shown below.
- Seeds for plants sown in the ground should be planted during the periods shown.
- When no dates appear in the chart, that starting method is not recommended for the particular vegetable.
- To start transplants, see our Best Dates to Transplant (by region).
Planting by the Moon?
Above-ground crops are planted during the light of the Moon (new to full); below-ground crops are planted during the dark of the Moon (from the day after it is full to the day before it is new again). Planting is done in the daytime; planting at night is optional!
This chart includes the most popular crops. For more information, consult your cooperative extension.
Click on the underlined crops below for free "how to" plant and grow guides!
50% probability of frost free after May 3 (at ROCHESTER MUNICIPAL AP, MN climate station).
|Crop||Start Seeds Indoors||Moon-favorable Dates||Set Out Plants/|
Start Seeds Outdoors
|Beans||May 10-31||May 10-14, May 28-31|
|Beets||Apr 19-May 10||Apr 19-28|
|Broccoli||Mar 22-Apr 5||Mar 30-Apr 5||Apr 12-May 3||Apr 12-15, Apr 29-May 3|
|Brussels sprouts||Mar 22-Apr 5||Mar 30-Apr 5||Apr 5-26||Apr 5-15|
|Cabbage||Mar 7-22||Mar 7-16||Apr 5-19||Apr 5-15|
|Carrots||Mar 29-Apr 12||Mar 29|
|Cauliflower||Mar 22-Apr 5||Mar 30-Apr 5||Apr 5-19||Apr 5-15|
|Celery||Feb 21-Mar 7||Mar 1- 7||May 10-24||May 10-14|
|Collards||Mar 22-Apr 5||Mar 30-Apr 5||Apr 5-26||Apr 5-15|
|Corn||May 3-17||May 3-14|
|Cucumbers||Apr 5-12||Apr 5-12||May 17-Jun 7||May 28-Jun 7|
|Eggplant||Feb 21-Mar 7||Mar 1- 7||May 17-Jun 7||May 28-Jun 7|
|Kale||Mar 22-Apr 5||Mar 30-Apr 5||Apr 5-26||Apr 5-15|
|Kohlrabi||Apr 5-26||Apr 5-15|
|Leeks||Feb 21-Mar 7||Mar 1- 7||Apr 5-26||Apr 5-15|
|Lettuce||Mar 22-Apr 5||Mar 30-Apr 5||Apr 19-May 17||Apr 29-May 14|
|Melons||Apr 5-12||Apr 5-12||May 17-Jun 7||May 28-Jun 7|
|Okra||May 17-31||May 28-31|
|Onion sets||Apr 5-26||Apr 16-26|
|Parsnips||Apr 12-May 3||Apr 16-28|
|Peas||Mar 22-Apr 12||Mar 30-Apr 12|
|Peppers||Feb 21-Mar 7||Mar 1- 7||May 17-Jun 7||May 28-Jun 7|
|Potato tubers||Apr 26-May 17||Apr 26-28, May 15-17|
|Pumpkins||Apr 5-19||Apr 5-15||May 17-Jun 7||May 28-Jun 7|
|Radishes||Mar 7-29||Mar 17-29|
|Spinach||Mar 22-Apr 12||Mar 30-Apr 12|
|Squash||Apr 5-19||Apr 5-15||May 17-Jun 7||May 28-Jun 7|
|Sweet Potatoes||Apr 5-12||May 17-Jun 7||May 17-27|
|Swiss Chard||Mar 22-Apr 5||Mar 30-Apr 5||Apr 12-19||Apr 12-15|
|Tomatoes||Mar 7-22||Mar 7-16||May 10-31||May 10-14, May 28-31|
|Turnips||Apr 5-26||Apr 16-26|
|Watermelon||Apr 5-12||Apr 5-12||May 17-Jun 7||May 28-Jun 7|