When determining the best planting dates in the spring for seeds, the date of the last spring frost is important to your success. NOTE: Our chart calculates U.S. frost dates only, based on historical data. Other factors can also influence planting dates, including soil temperature, altitude and slope of land, nearby waters, and day length. Keep records of your garden's conditions each year to plan more accurately.
- Seeds for plants with a long growing season should be started indoors during the periods shown below.
- Seeds for plants sown in the ground should be planted during the periods shown.
- When no dates appear in the chart, that starting method is not recommended for the particular vegetable.
- To start transplants, see our Best Dates to Transplant (by region).
Planting by the Moon?
Above-ground crops are planted during the light of the Moon (new to full); below-ground crops are planted during the dark of the Moon (from the day after it is full to the day before it is new again). Planting is done in the daytime; planting at night is optional!
This chart includes the most popular crops. For more information, consult your cooperative extension.
Click on the underlined crops below for free "how to" plant and grow guides!
50% probability of frost free after May 23 (at MISSOULA 2 NE, MT climate station).
|Crop||Start Seeds Indoors||Moon-favorable Dates||Set Out Plants/|
Start Seeds Outdoors
|Beans||May 30-Jun 20||May 30-Jun 12|
|Beets||May 9-30||May 15-27|
|Broccoli||Apr 11-25||Apr 11-15||May 2-23||May 2-14|
|Brussels sprouts||Apr 11-25||Apr 11-15||Apr 25-May 16||Apr 29-May 14|
|Cabbage||Mar 28-Apr 11||Mar 30-Apr 11||Apr 25-May 9||Apr 29-May 9|
|Carrots||Apr 18-May 2||Apr 18-28|
|Cauliflower||Apr 11-25||Apr 11-15||Apr 25-May 9||Apr 29-May 9|
|Celery||Mar 14-28||Mar 14-16||May 30-Jun 13||May 30-Jun 12|
|Collards||Apr 11-25||Apr 11-15||Apr 25-May 16||Apr 29-May 14|
|Corn||May 23-Jun 6||May 28-Jun 6|
|Cucumbers||Apr 25-May 2||Apr 29-May 2||Jun 6-27||Jun 6-12, Jun 27|
|Eggplant||Mar 14-28||Mar 14-16||Jun 6-27||Jun 6-12, Jun 27|
|Kale||Apr 11-25||Apr 11-15||Apr 25-May 16||Apr 29-May 14|
|Kohlrabi||Apr 25-May 16||Apr 29-May 14|
|Leeks||Mar 14-28||Mar 14-16||Apr 25-May 16||Apr 29-May 14|
|Lettuce||Apr 11-25||Apr 11-15||May 9-Jun 6||May 9-14, May 28-Jun 6|
|Melons||Apr 25-May 2||Apr 29-May 2||Jun 6-27||Jun 6-12, Jun 27|
|Okra||Jun 6-20||Jun 6-12|
|Onion sets||Apr 25-May 16||Apr 25-28, May 15-16|
|Parsnips||May 2-23||May 15-23|
|Peas||Apr 11-May 2||Apr 11-15, Apr 29-May 2|
|Peppers||Mar 14-28||Mar 14-16||Jun 6-27||Jun 6-12, Jun 27|
|Potato tubers||May 16-Jun 6||May 16-27|
|Pumpkins||Apr 25-May 9||Apr 29-May 9||Jun 6-27||Jun 6-12, Jun 27|
|Radishes||Mar 28-Apr 18||Mar 28-29, Apr 16-18|
|Spinach||Apr 11-May 2||Apr 11-15, Apr 29-May 2|
|Squash||Apr 25-May 9||Apr 29-May 9||Jun 6-27||Jun 6-12, Jun 27|
|Sweet Potatoes||Apr 25-May 2||Apr 25-28||Jun 6-27||Jun 13-26|
|Swiss Chard||Apr 11-25||Apr 11-15||May 2- 9||May 2- 9|
|Tomatoes||Mar 28-Apr 11||Mar 30-Apr 11||May 30-Jun 20||May 30-Jun 12|
|Turnips||Apr 25-May 16||Apr 25-28, May 15-16|
|Watermelon||Apr 25-May 2||Apr 29-May 2||Jun 6-27||Jun 6-12, Jun 27|