When determining the best planting dates in the spring for seeds, the date of the last spring frost is important to your success. NOTE: Our chart calculates U.S. frost dates only, based on historical data. Other factors can also influence planting dates, including soil temperature, altitude and slope of land, nearby waters, and day length. Keep records of your garden's conditions each year to plan more accurately.
- Seeds for plants with a long growing season should be started indoors during the periods shown below.
- Seeds for plants sown in the ground should be planted during the periods shown.
- When no dates appear in the chart, that starting method is not recommended for the particular vegetable.
- To start transplants, see our Best Dates to Transplant (by region).
Planting by the Moon?
Above-ground crops are planted during the light of the Moon (new to full); below-ground crops are planted during the dark of the Moon (from the day after it is full to the day before it is new again). Planting is done in the daytime; planting at night is optional!
This chart includes the most popular crops. For more information, consult your cooperative extension.
Click on the underlined crops below for free "how to" plant and grow guides!
50% probability of frost free after April 30 (at CLEVELAND HOPKNS INTL AP, OH climate station).
|Crop||Start Seeds Indoors||Moon-favorable Dates||Set Out Plants||Moon-favorable Dates|
|Beans||May 7-14||May 7-14|
|Beets||Apr 16||Apr 16|
|Broccoli||Mar 19-Apr 2||Mar 30-Apr 2||Apr 9-16||Apr 9-15|
|Brussels sprouts||Mar 19-Apr 2||Mar 30-Apr 2||Apr 2||Apr 2|
|Cabbage||Mar 4-19||Mar 4-16||Apr 2-16||Apr 2-15|
|Carrots||Mar 26-Apr 9||Mar 26-29|
|Cauliflower||Mar 19-Apr 2||Mar 30-Apr 2||Apr 2-16||Apr 2-15|
|Celery||Feb 18-Mar 4||Mar 1- 4|
|Collards||Mar 19-Apr 2||Mar 30-Apr 2||Apr 2||Apr 2|
|Corn||Apr 30-May 14||Apr 30-May 14|
|Cucumbers||Apr 2- 9||Apr 2- 9||May 14-21||May 14|
|Eggplant||Feb 18-Mar 4||Mar 1- 4||May 14-21||May 14|
|Kale||Mar 19-Apr 2||Mar 30-Apr 2||Apr 2||Apr 2|
|Kohlrabi||Apr 2||Apr 2|
|Leeks||Feb 18-Mar 4||Mar 1- 4||Apr 2-16||Apr 2-15|
|Lettuce||Mar 19-Apr 2||Mar 30-Apr 2||Apr 16-May 14||Apr 29-May 14|
|Melons||Apr 2- 9||Apr 2- 9||May 14||May 14|
|Okra||May 14-28||May 14|
|Onion sets||Apr 2|
|Parsnips||Apr 9-30||Apr 16-28|
|Peas||Mar 19-Apr 2||Mar 30-Apr 2|
|Peppers||Feb 18-Mar 4||Mar 1- 4||May 14||May 14|
|Potato tubers||Apr 23-May 14||Apr 23-28|
|Pumpkins||Apr 2-16||Apr 2-15||May 14||May 14|
|Radishes||Mar 4-19||Mar 17-19|
|Spinach||Mar 19-Apr 9||Mar 30-Apr 9|
|Squash, summer||Apr 2-16||Apr 2-15||May 14||May 14|
|Squash, winter||Apr 2-16||Apr 2-15||May 14||May 14|
|Sweet Potatoes||Apr 2- 9||May 14|
|Swiss Chard||Mar 19-Apr 2||Mar 30-Apr 2||Apr 9-16||Apr 9-15|
|Tomatoes||Mar 4-19||Mar 4-16||May 7-14||May 7-14|
|Turnips||Apr 2-16||Apr 16|
|Watermelon||Apr 2- 9||Apr 2- 9||May 14||May 14|