When determining the best planting dates in the spring for seeds, the date of the last spring frost is important to your success. NOTE: Our chart calculates U.S. frost dates only, based on historical data. Other factors can also influence planting dates, including soil temperature, altitude and slope of land, nearby waters, and day length. Keep records of your garden's conditions each year to plan more accurately.
- Seeds for plants with a long growing season should be started indoors during the periods shown below.
- Seeds for plants sown in the ground should be planted during the periods shown.
- When no dates appear in the chart, that starting method is not recommended for the particular vegetable.
- To start transplants, see our Best Dates to Transplant (by region).
Planting by the Moon?
Above-ground crops are planted during the light of the Moon (new to full); below-ground crops are planted during the dark of the Moon (from the day after it is full to the day before it is new again). Planting is done in the daytime; planting at night is optional!
This chart includes the most popular crops. For more information, consult your cooperative extension.
Click on the underlined crops below for free "how to" plant and grow guides!
50% probability of frost free after April 28 (at SALEM MCNARY AP, OR climate station).
|Crop||Start Seeds Indoors||Moon-favorable Dates||Set Out Plants/|
Start Seeds Outdoors
|Beans||May 5-26||May 5-14|
|Beets||Apr 14-May 5||Apr 16-27|
|Broccoli||Mar 17-31||Mar 30-31||Apr 7-28||Apr 7-15, Apr 28|
|Brussels sprouts||Mar 17-31||Mar 30-31||Mar 31-Apr 21||Mar 31-Apr 15|
|Cabbage||Mar 2-17||Mar 2-16||Mar 31-Apr 14||Mar 31-Apr 14|
|Carrots||Mar 24-Apr 7||Mar 24-29|
|Cauliflower||Mar 17-31||Mar 30-31||Mar 31-Apr 14||Mar 31-Apr 14|
|Celery||Feb 16-Mar 2||Mar 1- 2||May 5-19||May 5-14|
|Collards||Mar 17-31||Mar 30-31||Mar 31-Apr 21||Mar 31-Apr 15|
|Corn||Apr 28-May 12||Apr 28-May 12|
|Cucumbers||Mar 31-Apr 7||Mar 31-Apr 7||May 12-Jun 2||May 12-14, May 28-Jun 2|
|Eggplant||Feb 16-Mar 2||Mar 1- 2||May 12-Jun 2||May 12-14, May 28-Jun 2|
|Kale||Mar 17-31||Mar 30-31||Mar 31-Apr 21||Mar 31-Apr 15|
|Kohlrabi||Mar 31-Apr 21||Mar 31-Apr 15|
|Leeks||Feb 16-Mar 2||Mar 1- 2||Mar 31-Apr 21||Mar 31-Apr 15|
|Lettuce||Mar 17-31||Mar 30-31||Apr 14-May 12||Apr 14-15, Apr 29-May 12|
|Melons||Mar 31-Apr 7||Mar 31-Apr 7||May 12-Jun 2||May 12-14, May 28-Jun 2|
|Okra||May 12-26||May 12-14|
|Onion sets||Mar 31-Apr 21||Apr 16-21|
|Parsnips||Apr 7-28||Apr 16-27|
|Peas||Mar 17-Apr 7||Mar 30-Apr 7|
|Peppers||Feb 16-Mar 2||Mar 1- 2||May 12-Jun 2||May 12-14, May 28-Jun 2|
|Potato tubers||Apr 21-May 12||Apr 21-27|
|Pumpkins||Mar 31-Apr 14||Mar 31-Apr 14||May 12-Jun 2||May 12-14, May 28-Jun 2|
|Radishes||Mar 2-24||Mar 17, Mar 18-24|
|Spinach||Mar 17-Apr 7||Mar 30-Apr 7|
|Squash||Mar 31-Apr 14||Mar 31-Apr 14||May 12-Jun 2||May 12-14, May 28-Jun 2|
|Sweet Potatoes||Mar 31-Apr 7||May 12-Jun 2||May 15-27|
|Swiss Chard||Mar 17-31||Mar 30-31||Apr 7-14||Apr 7-14|
|Tomatoes||Mar 2-17||Mar 2-16||May 5-26||May 5-14|
|Turnips||Mar 31-Apr 21||Apr 16-21|
|Watermelon||Mar 31-Apr 7||Mar 31-Apr 7||May 12-Jun 2||May 12-14, May 28-Jun 2|