When determining the best planting dates in the spring for seeds, the date of the last spring frost is important to your success. NOTE: Our chart calculates U.S. frost dates only, based on historical data. Other factors can also influence planting dates, including soil temperature, altitude and slope of land, nearby waters, and day length. Keep records of your garden's conditions each year to plan more accurately.
- Seeds for plants with a long growing season should be started indoors during the periods shown below.
- Seeds for plants sown in the ground should be planted during the periods shown.
- When no dates appear in the chart, that starting method is not recommended for the particular vegetable.
- To start transplants, see our Best Dates to Transplant (by region).
Planting by the Moon?
Above-ground crops are planted during the light of the Moon (new to full); below-ground crops are planted during the dark of the Moon (from the day after it is full to the day before it is new again). Planting is done in the daytime; planting at night is optional!
This chart includes the most popular crops. For more information, consult your cooperative extension.
Click on the underlined crops below for free "how to" plant and grow guides!
50% probability of frost free after May 10 (at PALOMAR MOUNTAIN OBS, CA climate station).
|Crop||Start Seeds Indoors||Moon-favorable Dates||Set Out Plants/|
Start Seeds Outdoors
|Beans||May 17-Jun 7||May 28-Jun 7|
|Beets||Apr 26-May 17||Apr 26-27, May 15-17|
|Broccoli||Mar 29-Apr 12||Mar 30-Apr 12||Apr 19-May 10||Apr 28-May 10|
|Brussels sprouts||Mar 29-Apr 12||Mar 30-Apr 12||Apr 12-May 3||Apr 12-15, Apr 28-May 3|
|Cabbage||Mar 15-29||Mar 15-16||Apr 12-26||Apr 12-15|
|Carrots||Apr 5-19||Apr 16-19|
|Cauliflower||Mar 29-Apr 12||Mar 30-Apr 12||Apr 12-26||Apr 12-15|
|Celery||Feb 28-Mar 15||Mar 1-15||May 17-31||May 28-31|
|Collards||Mar 29-Apr 12||Mar 30-Apr 12||Apr 12-May 3||Apr 12-15, Apr 28-May 3|
|Corn||May 10-24||May 10-14|
|Cucumbers||Apr 12-19||Apr 12-15||May 24-Jun 14||May 28-Jun 12|
|Eggplant||Feb 28-Mar 15||Mar 1-15||May 24-Jun 14||May 28-Jun 12|
|Kale||Mar 29-Apr 12||Mar 30-Apr 12||Apr 12-May 3||Apr 12-15, Apr 28-May 3|
|Kohlrabi||Apr 12-May 3||Apr 12-15, Apr 28-May 3|
|Leeks||Feb 28-Mar 15||Mar 1-15||Apr 12-May 3||Apr 12-15, Apr 28-May 3|
|Lettuce||Mar 29-Apr 12||Mar 30-Apr 12||Apr 26-May 24||Apr 28-May 14|
|Melons||Apr 12-19||Apr 12-15||May 24-Jun 14||May 28-Jun 12|
|Okra||May 24-Jun 7||May 28-Jun 7|
|Onion sets||Apr 12-May 3||Apr 16-27|
|Parsnips||Apr 19-May 10||Apr 19-27|
|Peas||Mar 29-Apr 19||Mar 30-Apr 15|
|Peppers||Feb 28-Mar 15||Mar 1-15||May 24-Jun 14||May 28-Jun 12|
|Potato tubers||May 3-24||May 15-24|
|Pumpkins||Apr 12-26||Apr 12-15||May 24-Jun 14||May 28-Jun 12|
|Radishes||Mar 15-Apr 5||Mar 17-29|
|Spinach||Mar 29-Apr 19||Mar 30-Apr 15|
|Squash||Apr 12-26||Apr 12-15||May 24-Jun 14||May 28-Jun 12|
|Sweet Potatoes||Apr 12-19||Apr 16-19||May 24-Jun 14||May 24-27, Jun 13-14|
|Swiss Chard||Mar 29-Apr 12||Mar 30-Apr 12||Apr 19-26|
|Tomatoes||Mar 15-29||Mar 15-16||May 17-Jun 7||May 28-Jun 7|
|Turnips||Apr 12-May 3||Apr 16-27|
|Watermelon||Apr 12-19||Apr 12-15||May 24-Jun 14||May 28-Jun 12|