Bulb and clove formation is dependent on several factors, including exposure to a period of cold, changing day length, soil temperature, planting date, local weather/climate.
If the bulbs were fully mature when harvested, it might be, if you live in a warm climate, that the seed garlic may not have had enough cold exposure (about 32 to 40 degrees F for several months). Cold encourages bulb/clove formation. If you live in an area where temperatures do not get below about 40 degrees F, you can place the seed garlic in a porous bag in the refrigerator for about 6 to 8 weeks before planting them.
After exposure to cold temperatures (called vernalization), bulb formation is further induced by increasing day length and soil temperatures above 60 degrees F.
You might ask your county's Cooperative Extension for the types of garlic that do well in your area. (Softneck types are usually better for southern gardens.) For contact information, see: http://www.almanac.com/content/cooperative-extension-services
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