Beans are a warm season crop and grow best when temps are about 65° to 85°F. To grow well just about anywhere, beans need full sun and rich, composted soil.
The soil temp for germination is at least 55°F, so you can probably plant any time now. Bush beans may be the easiest: they grow compactly, usually no more than a couple of feet high and many arieties are highly productive. Pole beans grow up (and up) and so need support—sometimes strong support, as the vines can reach six feet or more. The height might make them easier to reach and pick—you decide.
Consider the time-maturity-period of the variety of bean you want to plant, no matter whether bush or pole.
Finally, if you have a garden and are introducing beans to it and want to continue to do that, be aware of the need to rotate your crops to minimize pests (up here, Mexican bean beetles can devastate a crop before pods even set) and help to improe soil nutrition. (The 2014 Almanac has a feature on crop rotation.)
We hope this helps!
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