Peonies

How to Plant, Grow, and Care for Peony Flowers

Pink Peony

Taken in my garden, late spring 2007.

Michele Rose

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The peony is outrageously beautiful in bloom in springtime—with lush foliage all summer long. See how to grow peonies.

Peony flowers are perennials that come back every spring to take your breath away. The plants may live longer than you do—some have been known to thrive for 100 years.

The fattest and most scrumptious of all flowers, a rare fusion of fluff and majesty, the peony is now coming into bloom.
–Henry Mitchell, American writer (1923-93)

Peony plants require little maintenance as long as they are planted properly and establish themselves; they do not respond well to transplanting. 

They’re hardy to Zone 3 and grow well as far south as Zones 7 and 8. In most of the country, the rules for success are simply full sun and well-drained soil. Peonies even relish cold winters, because they need chilling for bud formation.

Peonies make fine sentinels lining walkways and a lovely low hedge. After its stunning bloom, the peony’s bushy clump of handsome glossy green leaves lasts all summer, and then turns purplish or gold in the fall, as stately and dignified as any shrub.

In mixed borders, peonies bloom with columbines, baptisias, and veronicas, and combine well with irises and roses. Plant white peonies with yellow irises and a froth of forget-me-nots; set off pink peonies with blue Nepeta or violets.

Planting

  • Grow peonies in deep, fertile, humus-rich, moist soil that drains well.  Soil pH should be neutral.
  • The soil will benefit from the addition of organic material in the planting hole. If the soil is heavy or very sandy, enrich it with compost. Incorporate about 1 cup of bonemeal into the soil. Tamp soil firmly.
  • Peonies are not fussy but choose your location wisely as they resent disturbance. Provide shelter from strong winds. Plant away from trees or shrubs as peonies don’t like to compete for food and moisture. Space them three to four feet apart for good air circulation.
  • Peonies like full sun, and though they can manage with half a day, they bloom best in a sunny spot.
  • Peonies are usually sold as bare-root tubers with three to five eyes, divisions of a three- or four-year-old plant.
  • Plant peonies in the fall: in late September and October in most of the country, and even later in the South. (If you must move an established plant, this is the time.)
  • Peonies should be settled into place before the first hard frost. Spring-planted peonies just don’t do as well, experts agree; they generally lag about a year behind those planted in the fall.
  • Dig a generous-sized hole, about two feet deep and two feet across in well-drained soil in a sunny spot. If the soil is heavy or very sandy, enrich it with compost. Incorporate about one cup of bonemeal into the soil. Tamp it firmly.
  • Set the root so the eyes face upward on top of the firmed soil, placing the root just 2 inches below the soil surface. (In southern states, choose early-blooming varieties, plant them about an inch deep, and provide some shade.)
  • Then backfill the hole, taking care that the soil doesn’t settle and bury the root deeper than 2 inches.
  • Water thoroughly.

Tip: Don’t plant too deep! In most of the country, the peony’s eyes (buds) should be no deeper than 1-½ to 2 inches below the soil line!

Care

Like children, young peonies take time to develop. They usually need a few years to establish themselves, bloom, and grow.

Peonies thrive on benign neglect. Unlike most perennials, they don’t need to be dug and divided.

  • Spare the fertilizer. Work the soil well before you plant, mixing in a little fertilizer, and that should be enough.
  • If your soil is poor, the time to apply fertilizer (bonemeal, compost, or well-rotted manure) is early summer, after the peonies have bloomed and you have deadheaded. Don’t fertilizer more than every few years.
  • Help the stems. If peonies have any structural weakness, it is their stems, which are sometimes not strong enough to support their gigantic blossoms. Consider three-legged metal peony rings that allow the plant to grow through the center of the rings.
  • Deadhead peony blossoms as soon as they begin to fade, cutting to a strong leaf so that the stem doesn’t stick out of the foliage. Cut the foliage to the ground in the fall to avoid any overwintering disease.
  • Don’t smother peonies with mulch. Where cold temperatures are severe, for the first winter after planting you can mulch VERY loosely with pine needles or shredded bark. Remove mulch in the spring.

Pests/Diseases

Peonies are generally very hardy. They are prone to Verticillium wilt, ringspot virus, tip blight, stem rot, Botrytis blight, left blotch, Japanese beetle, and nematodes.

Many gardeners wonder why so many ants crawl on the peony buds. They are eating nectar in exchange for attacking bud-eating pests. Never spray the ants; they’re helping you nurture peonies to bloom.

Luckily, peonies are also one of many deer-resistant plants you can grow in your garden.

Recommended Varieties

Wit & Wisdom

Had I but four square feet of ground at my disposal, I would plant a peony in the corner and proceed to worship. –Alice Harding, The Book of the Peony

Tip: Peonies make wonderful cut flowers, lasting more than a week. For best results, cut long stems when the buds are still fairly tight.

Reader Comments

Leave a Comment

Late March Care

Hello,
I live in Oklahoma and moved into a new house last May. When I got here the flower bed was full of beautiful Peony. This year I've been concerned about what I need to do to get this kind of result again, it is my first time caring for Peony. It is now late March and I noticed when I cleaning out the beds that there are little pink tips poking out of the ground in several spots. I uncovered them of leaves and other debris, should I have? I just don't want to uncover them too early and for them to get too cold or something. Is there anything else I need to do at this point? It's hard for me to believe that these little pink tips will grow into those big beautiful blooming plants that were there last year within a couple of months. Just wondering if this sounds like a normal stage for them to be in at this point in the year. We've had a fairly cold Spring so far. Thanks!

It's normal for peonies to

It's normal for peonies to show some growth in early spring. Spread some organic, all-purpose fertilizer around your plants or top-dress with compost for continued blooms.

Digging up peonies

I am moving from my home and decided I would try to dig up my peonies to take with me. I live in Connecticut. I dug them up, and now wonder how I should store them until I move in a month. Should I just put them in a pot with potting soil or store them loose in a paperbag with peat moss? I know I am taking a chance that they may die.

Store the bulbs in a

Store the bulbs in a container of moist sawdust or sand in a cool dark location. Don't let the bulbs dry out.

Zone 8 California, planting times!

Hi, I bought some bare root Sarah bernhardts, that just recently came into my local store at the beginning of the month (its towards the end of March now!). I wanted to plant them early morning tomorrow, but is this a bad idea? Since they're supposed to be planted in fall! Why would a nursery sell bulbs after the planting season, and what do you suggest I do with them? Will they still be alive by this fall if I decide to plant them this year? Any advice on the best course of a tion would be wonderful! Thanks for your help, I'm still a novice gardener and I aspire towards a full garden of peonies!

Fall is the best time to

Fall is the best time to plant peonies but you can plant them now. Make sure to follow the advice above about planting.

cutting peonies in the sping

This is my first year in a house with peonies in the garden. I didn't know I was supposed to cut them to the ground in the fall. Now it's March. Should I cut now???

peonies

Typically, you would cut the peonies down to the ground after a frost. So do it now before the new growth starts for this year. Thanks for your interest in The Old Farmer's Almanac.

not blooming

We have had our peonies in for about 11 yrs. we only get 2-3 blooms on them every spring. There are 3 that never bloom. Is it true that there are male & female peonies and the male does not bloom?

they get lots of sunshine and plenty of water. Thanks for your help' We don't fertilize very often

Thanks for the helpful

Thanks for the helpful tips!
What should I do if I planted them too deep? They've been in the current location for 2 seasons.

You can try to very gently

You can try to very gently lift the tubers with a spade and fill the hole with soil and compost.

Conflicting info on planting time for Peonies

Hi, I just purchased 3 boxes(12 total bulbs) from Sams Club. They are Sarah Bernhardt and Karl rosenfeld, nursery supplier name Van Zyvenden. The instructions are clear and repetitive on the box that they should be planted in the spring after last frost, which is in mid April in my zone 6 (25801 Zip). However, not just the very reliable Almanac, but nearly all of the research I have done strongly suggests they should be planted in the fall. It says they are guaranteed to grow, although I would hate to know what is involved with executing that....was wondering if I should just try it in April, (if so, should i keep the bulbs in the refrigerator until then? its late feb now)or maybe store the bulbs until fall, or.. maybe try to start them now in some large pots and transplant them in the fall? Or should i just cut my losses and just return the unopened boxes for a refund now, and try again in the fall??? Thank you!

peony planting

Bare-root peonies are best planted in the fall because it allows some feeder roots to form, helping the plant to get a good start in spring. Planting bare-root peonies in spring will stress the plants more, and they will take longer to establish. You might try planting them in April, as directed, and pamper them as much as you can to help them get off to a good start. Keep in mind that peonies may take a year or two to start flowering; those that are stressed might take longer. Be sure to plant at the proper depth (so that the eyes are 1/2 to 2 inches deep, but no more)--too deep, and they will not flower. Container-grown peonies can be planted in spring with greater success than bare-root.

If you do want to store the peonies for a bit before planting, you can place them in a cool (around 40 to 45 F), dark, dry area, such as a root cellar. Be sure to keep them above freezing, but not so warm as to encourage sprouting.

Good luck!

Conflicting planting time.

I also bought the bulbs at SAMs Club and followed the directions and planted in the spring. I live in southeast Virginia. The first two years I was very upset they came up but no blooms. I worried I had planted them too deep. Last year they bloomed beautifully. Each plant had about 5 blooms each. I am so excited ....this year the buds are too numerous to count. I am looking forward to fresh cut flowers this Spring. My advise just be patient . Good luck!

My peony has never bloomed it's about 8 years old

My peony is around 8 years old it has never bloomed. I bought it as a bareroot plant and planted it in a shady area because I live in the Central Valley in California we get to 110 degrees in summer. I dug it up in the fall the first season. I planted the peony in a large pot and there it has remained.I have become curious to up-turn the pot to look at the roots. It's mid-January is it safe to examine the condition of my peony.

Success with peonies in

Success with peonies in containers will depend on how large your container is and what winter conditions are like (they need a freezing period).
Peonies have very large root systems and need good drainage. Peonies are also heavy feeders.
When you remove the roots from the pot shake off the soil to find the eyes (buds). If the roots seems to be crowded in the pot you may want to find a bigger container. When replanting the peony place the roots in the soil so that the eyes are 1 to 2 inches below the soil surface. If you plant them any deeper they will not bloom.

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Botanical Name: 

Paeonia

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