Crusty French bread several days old holds up well in this soup. Don’t use very soft bread or it will lose its shape entirely.
Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Melt butter in Dutch oven. Toss cabbage in butter, cover, and cook over very low heat until cabbage is wilted. Remove most of the cabbage, leaving a layer about 2 inches deep. Cover with a layer of bread slices, sprinkle with cheese, and repeat layers, ending with cheese on top. Pour in enough stock to barely cover top layer. Bake 1 hour, uncovered, or until top is brown.