The point in a planet’s orbit that is closest to the Sun.

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18 inches; derived from distance between elbow and tip of middle finger.


The fear of fog or clouds


Fear of lightning/thunder


Hail falls mainly in the summer. It forms in thunderstorm clouds, which can extend high into the atmoshpere where extremely cold temperatures prevail. When a cloud releases rain, the rain can be forced upward, where it freezes into tiny ice pellets. If updrafts keep buffeting the pellets, layer upon layer of frozen water will be added to the pellets until, finally, hailstones are released.


An instrument that measures the loss of water by evaporation.


The letters signified by the signal ( . . . --- . . . ) prescribed by the International Radiotelegraphic Convention of 1908 for use by ships in distress. SOS was chosen as the universal distress signal because this combination of three dots followed by three dashes followed by three dots (...---...), was easy to send and easily recognized, especially since they were usually sent as a nine-character signal, which stood out against the background of three-character Morse Code letters. The letters themselves are meaningless. SOS does not stand for Save Our Souls, Save Our Ship, Stop Other Signals, or Sure Of Sinking.


From the Latin word octo, "eight," because this had been the eighth month of the early Roman calendar.

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