Flower Meanings: The Language of Flowers

What Does Each Flower Symbolize?

March 2, 2020
Language of Flowers

Illustrated postcard. Printed in England/The Regent Publishing Co Ltd.

Dumbarton Oaks Archives

What does each flower symbolize? Which flowers represent love, hope, healing, loss, and good luck? See the Almanac’s complete list of Flower Meanings and Plant Symbolism. Whether you are picking out a flower bouquet for a wedding, choosing a single flower for a loved one, or planting a garden, discover the secret language of flowers!

Jump to the full list of flower meanings by clicking here.

The History of Flower Meanings

The symbolic language of flowers has been recognized for centuries in many countries throughout Europe and Asia. They even play a large role in William Shakespeare’s works. Mythologies, folklore, sonnets, and plays of the ancient Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, and Chinese are peppered with flower and plant symbolism—and for good reason. Nearly every sentiment imaginable can be expressed with flowers. The orange blossom, for instance, means chastity, purity, and loveliness, while the red chrysanthemum means “I love you.”

Flowery Language of the Victorian Era

Learning the special symbolism of flowers became a popular pastime during the 1800s. Nearly all Victorian homes had, alongside the Bible, guidebooks for deciphering the “language,” although definitions shifted depending on the source. 

In the Victorian era, flowers were primarily used to deliver messages that couldn’t be spoken aloud. In a sort of silent dialogue, flowers could be used to answer “yes” or “no” questions. A “yes” answer came in the form of flowers handed over with the right hand; if the left hand was used, the answer was “no.”

Plants could also express aversive feelings, such as the “conceit” of pomegranate or the “bitterness” of aloe. Similarly, if given a rose declaring “devotion” or an apple blossom showing “preference,” one might return to the suitor a yellow carnation to express “disdain.”

How flowers were presented and in what condition were important. If the flowers were given upside down, then the idea being conveyed was the opposite of what was traditionally meant. How the ribbon was tied said something, too: Tied to the left, the flowers’ symbolism applied to the giver, whereas tied to the right, the sentiment was in reference to the recipient. And, of course, a wilted bouquet delivered an obvious message!

More examples of plants and their associated human qualities during the Victorian era include bluebells and kindness, peonies and bashfulness, rosemary and remembrance, and tulips and passion. The meanings and traditions associated with flowers have certainly changed over time, and different cultures assign varying ideas to the same species, but the fascination with “perfumed words” persists just the same.

What Does Each Flower Symbolize?

See our list below for symbolic meanings of herbs, flowers, and other plants. (Please note: There are many meanings for flowers over the centuries; our chart below reflects mainly Victorian symbolism.)

Click on linked plant names for a photo and growing guide.

Symbolic Meanings of Herbs, Flowers and Other Plants
Abatina Fickleness
Acanthus The fine art, artifice
Aloe Affection, also grief
Amaryllis Pride
Anemone Forsaken, sickness
Angelica Inspiration
Apple blossom Preference
Arborvitae Unchanging friendship
Aster Symbol of Love, Daintiness
Bachelor’s button Single blessedness
Sweet Basil Good wishes
Bay tree Glory
Begonia Beware, dark thoughts
Belledonna Silence
Bittersweet Truth
Black-eyed Susan Justice
Bluebell Humility, constancy
Borage Bluntness, directness
Butterfly weed Let me go
Camellia, pink Longing For You
Camellia, red You’re a Flame in My Heart
Camellia, white You’re Adroable
Candytuft Indifference
Carnation Women, Love
– Red carnation Alas for my poor heart, my heart aches
– White carnation Innocence, pure love, women’s good luck gift
– Pink carnation I’ll never forget you
– Striped Refusal
– Yellow carnation Disdain, disappointment, rejection
Chamomile Patience in adversity
Chives Usefulness
Chrysanthemum, red I love you
Chrysanthemum, yellow Slighted love
Chrysanthemum, white Truth
Clematis Mental beauty
Clematis, evergreen Poverty
Clover, white Think of me
Columbine Foolishness, folly
Columbine, purple Resolution
Columbine, red Anxious, trembling
Coreopsis Always cheerful
Coriander Hidden worth/merit
Crab blossom Ill nature
Crocus, spring Youthful gladness
Cyclamen Resignation, diffidence
Daffodil Regard, Unequalled Love
Dahlia, single Good taste
Daisy Innocence, hope
Dill Powerful against evil
Edelweiss Courage, devotion
Fennel Flattery
Fern Sincerity, humility; also, magic and bonds of love
Forget-me-not True love memories, do not forget me
Gardenia Secret love
Geranium, oak-leaved True friendship
Gladiolus Remembrance
Goldenrod Encouragement, good fortune
Heliotrope Eternal love, devotion
Hibiscus Delicate beauty
Holly Foresight
Hollyhock Ambition
Honeysuckle Bonds of love
Hyacinth Sport, game, play
– Blue Hyacinth Constancy
– Purple Hyacinth Sorrow
– Yellow Hyacinth Jealousy
– White Hyacinth Loveliness, prayers for someone
Hydrangea Gratitude for being understood; frigidity and heartlessness
Hyssop Sacrifice, cleanliness
Iris A message
Ivy Friendship, fidelity, marriage
Jasmine, white Sweet love, amiability
Jasmine, yellow Grace and elegance
Lady’s Slipper Capricious beauty
Larkspur Lightness, levity
Lavender Distrust 
Lemon balm Sympathy
Lilac Joy of youth
Lily, calla Beauty
Lily, day Chinese emblem for mother
Lily-of-the-valley Sweetness, purity, pure love
Lotus Flower Purity, enlightenment, self-regeneration, and rebirth
Magnolia Love of nature
Marigold  Despair, grief, jealousy
Marjoram Joy and happiness
Mint Virtue
Morning glory Affection
Myrtle Good luck and love in a marriage
Nasturtium Patriotism
Oak Strength
Oregano Substance
Pansy Thoughts
Parsley Festivity
Peony Bashful, happy life
Pine Humility
Poppy, red Consolation
Rhododendron Danger, beware
Rose, red Love, I love you.
Rose, dark crimson Mourning
Rose, pink Happiness
Rose, white I’m worthy of you
Rose, yellow Jealousy, decrease of love, infidelity
Rosemary Remembrance
Rue Grace, clear vision
Sage Wisdom, immortality
Salvia, blue I think of you
Salvia, red Forever mine
Savory Spice, interest
Snapdragon Deception, graciousness
Sorrel Affection
Southernwood Constancy, jest
Spearmint Warmth of sentiment
Speedwell Feminine fidelity
Sunflower, dwarf Adoration
Sunflower, tall Haughtiness
Sweet pea Delicate pleasures
Sweet William Gallantry
Sweet woodruff Humility
Tansy Hostile thoughts, declaring war
Tarragon Lasting interest
Thyme Courage, strength
Tulip, red Passion, declaration of love
Tulip, yellow Sunshine in your smile
Valerian Readiness
Violet Loyalty, devotion, faithfulness, modesty
Wallflower Faithfulness in adversity
Willow Sadness
Yarrow Everlasting love
Zinnia Thoughts of absent friends

Flower Meanings by Color

Flowers provided an incredibly nuanced form of communication. Some plants, including roses, poppies, and lilies, could express a wide range of emotions based on their color alone.

Take, for instance, all of the different meanings attributed to variously colored carnations: Pink meant “I’ll never forget you”; red said “my heart aches for you”; purple conveyed capriciousness; white was for the “the sweet and lovely”; and yellow expressed romantic rejection.

Pink carnations

Likewise, a white violet meant “innocence,” while a purple violet said that the bouquet giver’s “thoughts were occupied with love.” A red rose was used to openly express feelings of love, while a red tulip was a confession of love. The calla lily was interpreted to mean “magnificent beauty,” and a clover said “think of me.”

Unsurprisingly, the color of the rose plays a huge role. Red roses symbolize love and desire, but roses come in a variety of colors and each has their own meaning.

  • White rose: purity, innocence, reverence, a new beginning, a fresh start.
  • Red rose: love, I love you
  • Deep, dark crimson rose: mourning
  • Pink rose: grace, happiness, gentleness
  • Yellow rose: jealousy, infidelity
  • Orange rose: desire and enthusiasm
  • Lavender rose: love at first sight
  • Coral rose: friendship, modesty, sympathy


What Wedding Flowers Mean

One tradition is to select the flowers of a wedding bouquet based on plant symbolism. As an example, look to the royal flower bouquet in the wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, to Kate Middleton (now Catherine, Ducchess of Cambridge). Her all-white bouquet had lily-of-the-valley (representing trustworthiness, purity), sweet William (gallantry), hyacinth (loveliness), myrtle (love in marriage), and ivy (continuity). Altogether, these flowers’ meanings reveal the hope of a loving, everlasting marriage.

The groom, too, wears a flower that appears in the bridal bouquet in his button-hole. This stems from the Medieval tradition of wearing his Lady’s colors, as a declaration of his love.

One fun modern idea is to give each bridesmaid a bouquet featuring a signature flower whose meaning suits her personality. 

There is a language, little known,
Lovers claim it as their own.
Its symbols smile upon the land,
Wrought by nature’s wondrous hand;
And in their silent beauty speak,
Of life and joy, to those who seek
For Love Divine and sunny hours
In the language of the flowers.

–The Language of Flowers, London, 1875


Another important area of flower symbolism is the meaning of birth month flowers.


Reader Comments

Leave a Comment

flower meanings

The Editors's picture

Hi Kitty, The concept of “insecurity” seems more modern and isn’t represented in our Victorian symbolism. Could you look at the foxglove, which would really boost confidence in times of insecurity?  The foxglove is a beautiful flower to paint, a sort of “fairy lantern.” It exudes good energy, attracting hummingbirds and bees as this erect flower reaches toward the skies.

Flower Meanings

This is interesting. You state that "the flower, Heather " means "loneliness." Once, I knew a young lady named "Heather" who seemed, sadly, to be the one of the "loneliest" people I hade ever met. Even when she was around other people, she appeared "lonely" although she was somewhat noisy, boisterous, and seemed to "enjoy the crowd."

What I was really interested in; if there is an actual correlation between "non-flower" girls' names and a specific flower. For example, could possibly the name of "Mary" be associated with the "rose", "Margaret" with the "daisy", or perhaps "Sara" with the "daffodil?' Would anyone know or is there a "website" or "book" with this information? Thank you.

flower symbolism

The Editors's picture

What an interesting question! No specific resource comes to mind, but I’m sure that there are many examples of a particular lady, or lady’s name, associated with a certain flower. You might check legends, myths, folklore, etc. For example, anemone is associated with Aphrodite. Also check “Meaning of Flowers,” “Language of Flowers,” and “Flower Symbolism” books. Historical and cultural references are bound to have some links. For example, Moina Michael helped to promote the poppy as a symbol of Memorial Day, to wear as a tribute to those who died for their country during war (for more information, see: http://www.almanac.com/content/when-memorial-day-2016). Botanical names, too, sometimes refer to legends, people, etc. It would be a great research project!

Flower meaning

Hello, do you know of a flower/plant/herb symbolizing trust? Or intuition? I am putting together a piece of art and want to incorporate the themes.

flower symbolism and meaning

The Editors's picture

A daisy symbolizes loyalty, innocence, and “I’ll never tell.” That seems the closet plant to symbolize “trust.”

Flower meaning loneliness

Hi, I'm doing a photography project around loneliness and want to include flowers in the photos - which should I include for isolation, loneliness etc thanks

Flower symbolism

The Editors's picture

Hi Jackie, That’s a hard one because it depends on why someone is lonely. Are they alone because they are longing for someone? That would be the Camellia. Are they just bashful? That would be the peony. Are they sweet and shy? A Violet is demure. Or are they lonely because they have been abandoned or forsaken? Then choose Anemone. A classic plant that means loneliness is Heather.

Is there a flower that means

Is there a flower that means welcomeing? Like I want to give some flowers to welcome someone to the neighborhood.

Meaning of Juniper bush

I am in a bible study and we all have flower names, i.e., mine is Sunflower Sharon.'
Our newest member picked Juniper Jenny. Is there a symbolic meaning for Juniper?
Thank you!

Plant symbolism: Juniper

The Editors's picture

The Juniper is a great choice. It stands for healing, cleansing, exorcism, healthy, love. Many Native Americans used juniper to banish evil spirits and protect themselves from witchcraft. Some tribes hung juniper boughs on their tepees or burned them to keep their homes safe and would rub juniper on their bodies before embarking on a dangerous journey to protect themselves. Juniper was frequently used as a medicinal herbs, too.

Flowers That Mean Siblings

Are there any flowers that represent family, especially siblings? I would like a tattoo that resembles my four brothers and sisters. Are there any flowers that represents brothers? Sisters? Sibling love? The closest thing I can find is Sunflower or Daisy but I feel like there are better options. Thanks!

I do not know of flowers that

The Editors's picture

I do not know of flowers that have specific meanings for siblings, but Zinnias represent lasting affection. Violets mean “I’ll always be there.” Forget-me-nots stand for memories. And the acorn symbolizes immortal love.  Here’s another idea: My mother had handmade tiles in her kitchen and they were decorated with flowers; each one was the birth flower of her parents, herself, her husband, and the children.  You could consider birth flowers, too. Here’s our page of Birth Flowers by Month.

Need help for a memorial tattoo.

Hi I'm updating a tattoo I got that for family and friends who have passed away. I would like to do a new version/ style. Instead of using a couple of the flowers with meanings I like. Is there a plant or flower with meaning of life after death. Something like that ?

Flower for apology

What is flower for apology especially to brother?

What is flower for deep disappointment? And beautiful flower with such contrast double meaning?


Hyacinth (Purple) means “I am

The Editors's picture

Hyacinth (Purple) means “I am Sorry, Please Forgive Me.” This is a spring flower, so very timely, too, and it has a double-meaning. 

The Carnation (Yellow) means “You have disappointed me.”

Meanings of flowers & herbs

I too have been compiling a meaning list, after I found the above poem years ago. I want to use them for my wedding reception. (I will have potted herbs on the tables with signs giving their meanings as center pieces & favors.) Looking through your list, which is great & had more than mine, these are the ones I have found, which you did not.
Curry - protection
Catnip - beauty, happiness
Eucalyptus - healing, protection
Lemon Verbena - love, purification
Sunflower - pride, pure thoughts
Thank you for sharing your list!

Hi I was looking for a flower

Hi I was looking for a flower that represented sisters. Like the the breakable relationship sisters have.

flower symbolism

The Editors's picture

Hi Phoenix, We don’t know of a flower with that exact meeting, but you could certainly select a flower that represents “womanhood” such as the azalea or harken back to “girlhood” with the white rosebud.

No Calla Lilly, no Fairy

No Calla Lilly, no Fairy Lilly! They are my favorites!

flower meanings

The Editors's picture

The Calla Lilly symbolizes “Beauty.” Simple, but true!

You don't have Lily on there.

You don't have Lily on there. I don't know what they stand for other than being really pretty.

Hi Lori, lilies have

The Editors's picture

Hi Lori, lilies have different meanings based on their colors. A white lily symbolizes purity, an orange color is hatred, and a yellow color is gay and “walking on air.”  Hope this helps.

missing gardenia

couldn't find flower or is it a bush? shrub? Gardenia.

“Gardenia” means “You are

The Editors's picture

“Gardenia” means “You are Lovely” or “Secret Love.”  Sounds like it’s the perfect gift from an admirer!

Janacarnda meaning

Planning on getting a tattoo of purple tree/shrub plant I loved when I was in Kenya. Understand it originated in South America. I obviously want to know the meaning of this beautiful flower before it is a part of me forever. Thanks.


I'm working to choose flowers for a bouquet and I'm wondering about the meaning of the following flowers:
Thank you!

Flower Meanings

The Editors's picture

What interesting choices. You do know the Shamrock is a symbol of Ireland and the Thistle a symbol of Scotland?

The Shamrock is steeped in symbolism as its three leaves harken back to the Trinity and sacred power. It also has had a long history of healing and protection. Finally, the Shamrock is often associated with good fortune and closedly associated with a joyous, happy marriage.

The Thistle is a tough plant and associated with resiilence, pride, pain, and protection.

The Hydrangea is a mixed bag. On the positive side, it can be used to express heartfelt emotions and to express gratitude and thankfulness, however, it also has a negative side symbolizing frigidity and heartlessness.  Life, it’s complicated!

Hydrangea meaning

In Mexico, Hydrangeas are a symbol of bad luck. I still grow them (white) and love them.


Is there any flower that stands for family?