How to Build a Raised Garden Bed

Planning, Building, and Planting a Raised Garden Bed

December 21, 2018

Learn how to easily build your own raised garden bed!


Raised garden beds are fairly easy to construct, even easier to maintain, and offer myriad benefits for your garden (and you)! Here’s how to build a raised garden bed in your backyard, as well as some advice on using the right wood and soil.

Raised beds are an easy way to get into gardening! Whether you purchase a kit or build your own, there are many great reasons for using raised bed gardening.

What is a Raised Garden Bed?

A raised garden bed (or simply “raised bed”) is a large planting container that sits aboveground and is filled with soil and plants. It is a box with no bottom or top—a frame, really—that is placed in a sunny spot and filled with good-quality soil—to become a source of pride and pleasure, and a centerpiece of the garden.

Why Should I Build a Raised Garden Bed?

Raised beds have many benefits. Here are a few reasons why you should consider using one:

  • Garden chores are made easier and more comfortable thanks to less bending and kneeling. Save your knees and back from the strain and pain of tending the garden!
  • Productivity of plants is improved due to better drainage and deeper rooting.
  • Raised beds are ideal for small spaces where a conventional row garden might be too wild and unwieldy. Raised beds help to keep things organized and in check.
  • Planting in a raised bed gives you full control over soil quality and content, which is especially important in areas where the existing soil is rocky, nutrient-poor, or riddled with weeds.
  • Raised beds allow for a longer growing season, since you can work the soil more quickly in the spring in frost-hardened regions, or convert the bed into a cold frame in the fall.
  • Fewer weeds are seen in raised beds thanks to the bed being elevated away from surrounding weeds and being filled with disease- and weed-free soil.
  • Raised beds allow for easier square-foot gardening and companion planting.

Learn more about the benefits of raised garden beds


Choosing the Right Wood for Raised Beds

Many people are concerned about the safety of their wood frame. First, rest assured that CCA pressure-treated wood is banned, as it was known to leach arsenic. To ensure that the wood lasts, there are several options:

  • Regular pressure-treated lumber sold today has a mixture of chemicals applied to prevent the moist soil and weather from rotting it. Although pressure-treated wood is certified as safe for organic growing, some people have reservations about using it, and there are various eco-friendly alternatives. 
  • More expensive woods, such as cedar, contain natural oils which prevent rotting and make them much more durable. They are more expensive to buy, but they will last many more years.
  • Choosing thicker boards can make the wood last longer. For example, 2-inch-thick locally sourced larch should last 10 years, even without treatment.
  • Avoid using railroad ties, as they may be treated with creosote, which is toxic.

Alternatives to wood include concrete blocks or bricks. However, keep in mind that concrete will increase the soil pH over time, and you will have to amend the soil accordingly to grow your best garden.

How Big Should Your Raised Bed Be?

  • First, you need a location that has level ground and gets the right amount of sunlight (6 to 8 hours per day). This should narrow down your options a bit.
  • In terms of bed size, 4 feet is a common width. Lumber is often cut in 4-foot increments, and you also want to be able to access the garden without stepping into the bed. Making the bed too wide will make it difficult to reach the middle, which makes weeding and harvesting a pain.
  • Length isn’t as important. Typical plots are often 4 feet wide by 8 feet long or 4 feet wide by 12 feet long. Make your bed as long as you like or build multiple raised beds for different crops.
  • The depth of the bed can vary, but 6 inches of soil should be the minimum. Most garden plants need at least 6 to 12 inches for their roots, so 12 inches is ideal.

Preparing the Site for a Raised Bed

  • Before you establish the bed, break up and loosen the soil underneath with a garden fork so that it’s not compacted. Go about 6 to 8 inches deep. For improved rooting, some gardeners like to remove the top layer (about a spade’s depth), dig down another layer, and then return the top layer and mix the soil layers together.
  • If you’re planning to put your raised bed in a space currently occupied by a lawn, lay down a sheet of cardboard, a tarp, or a piece of landscaping fabric to kill off the grass first. After about six weeks (or less, depending on the weather), the grass should be dead and will be much easier to remove.

Building a Raised Garden Bed

  • To support timber beds, place wooden stakes at every corner (and every few feet for longer beds). Place on the inside of the bed so that the stakes are less visible.
  • Drive the stakes about 60% (2 feet) into the ground and leave the rest of the stakes exposed aboveground.
  • Ensure that the stakes are level so that they’re in the ground at the same height, or you’ll have uneven beds.
  • Set the lowest boards a couple inches below ground level. Check that they are level.
  • Use galvanized nails (or screws) to fix the boards to the stakes.
  • Add any additional rows of boards, fixing them to the stakes, too.

Check out our video on how to build raised beds for your vegetables:

Soil for Raised Garden Beds

The soil blend that you put into your raised bed is its most important ingredient. More gardens fail or falter due to poor soil than almost anything else. 

  • Fill the beds with a mix of topsoil, compost, and other organic material, such as manure, to give your plants a nutrient-rich environment (see recipes below). Learn more about soil amendments and preparing soil for planting.
  • Note that the soil in a raised bed will dry out more quickly. During the spring and fall, this is fine, but during the summer, add straw, mulch, or hay on top of the soil to help it retain moisture.
  • Frequent watering will be critical with raised beds, especially in the early stages of plant growth. Otherwise, raised beds need little maintenance.

Raised Bed Soil Recipe

For a 4x8-foot raised bed:

  • 4 bags (2 cubic feet each) topsoil (Note: Avoid using topsoil from your yard, as it may contain weeds and pests.)
  • 2 pails (3 cubic feet each) peat moss
  • 2 bags (2–3 cubic feet each) compost or composted cow manure
  • 2-inch layer of shredded leaves or grass clippings (grass clippings should be herbicide- and fertilizer-free)

Makes enough for a depth of about 9 inches.

Raised garden bed. Photo by Oregon State University/Wikimedia Commons.
Square-foot gardening in a raised bed. Photo by Oregon State University/Wikimedia Commons.

Planning a Raised Bed Garden

To plan out the perfect garden for your space, try the Almanac Garden Planner! In minutes, you can create a garden plan right on your computer.

The Garden Planner has a “Raised Garden Bed” feature. It also has a specific square-foot gardening (SFG) feature, which involves dividing the bed into squares to make the organization of your garden a lot simpler (see photo above).

Which ever garden you select, the Garden Planner will show you the number of crops that fit in each space so you don’t waste seed or overcrowd. There’s even a companion planting tool so you plant crops that thrive together and avoid plants that inhibit each other.

Test out our Garden Planner with a free 7-day trial—plenty of time to plan your first garden! If you enjoy the Garden Planner, we hope you’ll subscribe. Otherwise, this is ample time to play around and give it a go!


Learn More

Have you ever thought about building your own raised garden bed? Or do you have one already? Tell us about it below!

Reader Comments

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Raw untreated pine beds

Hi the post by Unlearn got me thinking

I am very interested to know more about using raw untreated pine. Planning vegetable beds for my garden, and don't want to use anything treated / plastic that could leach chemicals

Also want something that will be really durable, don't want to have to rebuild in 5 years time. I read somewhere that raw pine will last a long time as its full of resin. Any experience of this? Any practical issues with using raw undried wood? (Will it shrink once in place?)

I'm no expert but I read somewhere that a waterproof lining can be counterproductive, as it traps moisture next to the wood

untreated pine for garden beds

Untreated pine isn’t particularly long-lasting. Five years is often suggested as a maximum before it begins to degrade. Cedar or larch is a much longer lasting material. Any wood does contract over time as it dries out, so you may find it easier to use wood that has been dried first.

Pine Raised Beds

I think exactly as you do. Not sure about the resin, but while researching possibilities to protect the wood, I found raw linseed oil is non toxic and made of flaxseed oil. It takes longer to dry (48 hrs) than boiled linseed oil but worth the wait.

Raised garden bed patio vegetable planter

My un-treated cedar frame arrived today. There is no base to it; its a frame. If I put it on the patio of my townhouse (which is not 100% level) what do I line the base with? I am unsure if landscape fabric can be used for this purpose?

raised garden bed planter

You can use landscape fabric if you want to line the base, though a raised bed can be placed straight onto a patio without a liner.

raised herb garden

I have a space about 3x12 between a screened porch and patio that i'd like to turn into a raised herb garden.. with maybe some string beans going up the back... never done this before, but its in a total sunny location (although low and gets a lot of rain - which is why I'm doing the raised option).. do you think this is a good idea?

It’s a great idea. Just make

It’s a great idea. Just make sure that the bed drains well and doesn’t collect too much of the rain water.

Great page! Glad I found it.

Great page! Glad I found it.
Thanks to a rather large wind storm & some hard work I have a nice supply of rough cut pine. The pine is being used to make raised veggie beds & I want them to last as long as possible. I'm thinking about lining the inside (sides only) of my new beds to prevent the direct contact between earth & raw pine. Trying to keep bugs & rot from bringing an early death to my beds.
My concern is lining these beds with something that will protect the bed sides & at the same time not have any adverse affects on the food I will be growing in them.
Is there a material designed for this purpose?
Is one type of poly good & others bad? (lots of conflicting info out there)
What about rubber, an old pond liner or like?

Someone on a forum somewhere suggested using "house wrap". A product named "Tyvec" is common here. New build homes are wrapped with a waterproof membrane (this Tyvec) between the plywood sheeting attached to the framing & the outer finish surface (siding/brick) of the home.
This actually appeals to me, as small scrap cutoffs are always available at new construction sites.

The bottom line is, I NEED the food to have no chance of contamination & I WANT to get the longest life out of the boxes I'm building. Can both be accomplished & with what?

Any info you can share would be much appreciated.

Thank you very much

treated waist high planters

What can I do to keep the chemicals from leeching into my herbs,and, vegetables with. I'm growing organically. Can I line the big boxes, or paint the interior with BP free paint. What kind of liner would work? I don't want to poison us for the sake of our backs.

Raised Beds Lining

Hi Debbie, You don’t say what your boxes are made of, but for maximum peace of mind I’d say impermeable plastic would be better than landscape fabric, which is usually porous to prevent waterlogging when used on the ground. Alternatively, using boxes made of a long-lasting, naturally rot-resistant wood such as cedar or larch is a good choice as it doesn’t need to be treated.

How to keep groundhogs out of my garden?

I really want to do the raised beds for my garden this year. My soil is very poor so this should help. Last year I worked very hard with my garden and it was coming along splendidly,and then one day I go the my garden and there isn't a plant to be seen and there is a groundhog eating the remaining watermelon sprouts! How do I keep them out!!??. I don't want to hurt it, just discourage it.
Thank you!

Walnut tree in our yard

I gave up our garden several years ago because of A walnut tree now I'm thinking about raised garden It will be about 50-60 feet from the tree trunk I think I'll need a bottom to keep tree root out I have several pieces of steel roofing I'd like to use and 2x10 sides that would make it 32" wide by 8 feet ,2 of them ,any suggestions

Raised Bed Gardening

The Editors's picture

Hi Rich, You should be fine building raised beds with thick landscape fabric beneath to help stop roots getting in, so long as the canopy of the tree doesn’t extend over the bed (nuts and leaves also contain juglone, the substance which is toxic to some plants). Here are a couple of links that explain further:


Want to build raised garden in areas where nematodes have been a problem. Should I use some sort of liner in the bottom or any suggestions to get rid of nematode

Building Raised Garden

Rhett Butler? You don’t say what type of nematode or which plants they affected, but generally speaking, crop rotation is the best way to avoid harmful varieties of nematode affecting your crops in subsequent years - a five year rotation is ideal for most crops. Marigolds are also said to be beneficial in preventing nematodes, particularly when grown repeatedly over several years.

I am putting a very LG raised

I am putting a very LG raised garden on the side of my house made of cinder blocks. There are no vegetation already growing. To help not buy so much dirt I am placing a layer of rocks. Do I still need to use a weed fabric and does it need to be under the rocks or can it go over?

If you’re placing a layer of

If you’re placing a layer of rocks down this will help to suppress most weeds, and if there’s no vegetation there at the moment then it’s unlikely you’d need to use weed fabric too. If you do decide to use weed fabric it would be easier to place it straight onto the ground then put rocks on top, being careful not to tear the fabric.

Hi there, I am thinking of

Hi there, I am thinking of building a raised bed using stone in the back garden, but there are two questions that I have.

1) The garden is quite small so I am planning on building the bed directly attached to the house. Will this cause structural problems to the house or do you think it will be ok if I use some sort of rubber/plastic membrane in conjunction with the stone wall between soil and house?

2) Currently there is a stone patio where the bed would be. I am worried this may affect drainage (and in turn make the above problem 1 worse). Do you think the best solution would be to attempt to take up the patio or is a different drainage solution you might suggest? Bearing in mind the site is beside the house i am somewhat reluctant to tear up the patio!

Cheers, thanks for help:)

Hi, We're not builders but

Hi, We're not builders but here are a couple thoughts . . . On your first question: A waterproof membrane should stop dampness getting through, but please consult a specialist if you’re concerned.
On your second question: Raised beds are often built on patios but it may be a good idea to either remove some of the patio surfacing underneath the bed if that’s possible, or else leave drainage holes in the open sides of the raised bed to allow water to drain away more easily.

Hi, sorry if already posted

Hi, sorry if already posted but for those like myself on a limited budget then try getting hold of unwanted pallets and use the wood from those. There are loads of YouTube videos on how to dismantle and re-use the timber from a pallet. Loads of firms will give these away for free so ask about and with a little bit of construction you can make your own beds for a few quid. If I can make them anyone can, you only need a wood saw, nails, basic tools and patience :-)

p.s check out you tube and follow some raised bed making videos they are so helpful. Happy growing everyone good luck Steve.

We built a raised-bed garden

We built a raised-bed garden out of cinderblocks recently but recently received a notice from our home owner's association that cinder blocks inhibit the drainage of water from our property.

From what I've read on this Q&A, cinder blocks DO allow for water drainage. Is this accurate? We have chickenwire under the garden but no other material preventing soil or water drainage.

I'm also disabled so the cinder block is perfect! It allows me to sit as needed on the outside. Any help you can provide that will help me fight the association policy would be appreciated.

Thank you for your help!

We're not sure how using

We're not sure how using using cinder blocks for constructing a raised bed would inhibit water drainage unless they’re against the wall of a house or if they’re being used as retaining walls on a slope. If that’s the case, knocking some holes in them for drainage may help. 

Hello I am trying to go all


I am trying to go all organic and am struggling with what to line the bottom of the raised garden bed with. It is on 3 foot legs, 3.5x 7 feet.

I don't want to use poly plastic as these have chemicals. Any idea what would work? Perhaps coffee bags? Large foodservice bags? Not sure.


Try weed-suppressing but

Try weed-suppressing but porous landscaping fabric, which will allow water to drain away. There are lots of different materials and brands available, so you may need to check what it’s made of before you buy it.


I'm curious if anyone has tried a potato sack repurposed? Maybe that would be worth a try this year. Let me know, my first time building and growing from scratch this year, I've used landscape fabric for a raised stacked garden bed. It measures 5x5' (by 12") on the bottom and is made of western red cedar. It's in a full sunlight area and on level ground. Would you recommend using old potato sacks or do they contain chemicals we aren't aware of? I'm growing organic non-gmo heirloom vegetables in there and I cannot find anything on what veggies to put beside which.

Hi , I made a raised garden

Hi , I made a raised garden bed from untreated wood. It is 3 ft by 3 ft, nailed at the corners. It is 12 inches deep. Now the wood has warped and the corners have become loose. How to keep them together now?

We're not sure what kind of

We're not sure what kind of wood you used. Some wood is not suitable for outdoor use (such as red oak). You may be able to cure the problem in the short term but it may continue to occur because of the moisture problems.
For now, perhaps try to wet the boards (or wait until after it rains) so they'll bend and clamp the boards before putting in support brackets? If you did use the wrong wood though, it will only be a matter of time and you could just deal with it now and replace with pressure-treated wood or rot-resistant wood more suitable for outdoor use.  Or, forget using boards entirely and border with bales of hay that you replace every few years.

I am planning a 4x8x12 wooden

I am planning a 4x8x12 wooden garden
When planting seeds what is the best placement of them i.e. green beans tomatoes,peas,pumpkins and melons ? Thank You

Also do I need to dig up the

Also do I need to dig up the grass sod underneath of it or can I just use mulch fabric ?