Invasive Species Run Wild

How two seemingly good ideas went terribly wrong

By Art Sordillo, Adapted from “Unforgettable Gifts From Pandora’s Box”
February 1, 2016
Bildagentur Zoonar/Shutterstock

Ecologically speaking, the most dangerous guests are the invasive species—the insects, animals, and plants that arrived here by accident, or simply through bad judgment, and stayed.

Unfortunately, there are thousands of these unwanted guests now—pests responsible for billions of dollars of environmental damage each year. Here are two of these invaders.

Wandering Gypsy Moths

The gypsy moth is a classic example of an invited pest that is here to stay. It arrived on North American shores because of one man’s desire to become wealthy in the silk industry.

Etienne Léopold Trouvelot (1827–95), a native of France, professional painter, and recognized amateur entomologist, had moved his family to Medford, Massachusetts, in 1852. It is believed that he received some gypsy moth specimens in the mail in 1868.

Credit: Kirsanov Valeriy Vladimirovich/Shutterstock

Hoping to crossbreed the gypsy moth with the mulberry silkworm, he began cultivating them in a shed on his property—some seven or eight treed acres, most of which he had under netting. Eventually, he released some gypsy moths to feed on the foliage of his trees. Somehow, some larvae got away from him (some records suggest that wind carried them away) and thrived because of the lack of predators and parasites. Not until 20 years later did local residents realize that it was these nonnative moths that were defoliating and destroying their fruit and shade trees and thus began to look for ways to exterminate the pests.

Today, gypsy moths are established in all of the northeastern United States and portions of the Southeast and Midwest, plus portions of eastern Canada. Efforts to eliminate them have been under way through the USDA Forest Service and on local levels.

Credit: Joseph Sohm/Shutterstock

The Bard’s Birds

Eugene Schieffelin (1827–1906), a German immigrant and drug maker living in New York City’s Bronx borough, was consumed by two great passions: Shakespeare and birds. By some accounts, it was Schieffelin’s former interest that inspired a pursuit of the latter and would eventually land him a dubious standing in the annals of history: importer into North America of every bird species mentioned in the plays of William Shakespeare (64 in all). Not coincidentally, Schieffelin was chairman of the American Acclimatization Society, whose members’ stated goal was the introduction of species.

Some of the Bard’s birds did not survive in their new home, but one line from Henry IV spoken by Hotspur gave Schieffelin some hope: “I’ll have a starling shall be taught to speake nothing but ‘Mortimer’ … .”

Thus, on the morning of March 6, 1890, Schieffelin and a few of his servants entered Central Park and released 60 starlings from their cages. These birds, some sources claim, made a beeline to the American Museum of Natural History and set about building nests under its roofline (starlings seek out cavities for nesting, often bullying native birds for space). The following year, Schieffelin released 40 more starlings. It is believed that of those freed, 16 pairs ultimately survived.

Image: Menno Schaefer/Shutterstock.   Swarms, aka murmurations, of starlings.

Today, starlings are one of the most populous avian species in North America (estimates run to 200 million)—and, by many accounts, the most problematic.

Wintering flocks of starlings mingle with blackbirds and cowbirds and create enormous problems: They eat feed grain, blueberries, cherries, and other pitted fruits, as well as apples. They consume suet and seed in residential bird feeders, depleting the resources available to smaller birds.

If a lot of starlings (among other birds) roost in the same location, their droppings can contaminate the soil, resulting in fungal spores that can become airborne and, when inhaled, cause histoplasmosis, a respiratory illness. Swarms, aka murmurations, of millions of starlings are hazardous to air travel.

Have you had any experiences with gypsy moths, starlings, or other invasives?  Please share below.


A Millennium Primer, The Old Farmer’s Almanac: Timeless Truthiversions (Grand Central Publishing, 1999)

Reader Comments

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Starlings in Snellville, Ga.

Yes unfortunately I'm having starlings eating my expensive dried mealworms that my bluebirds need/eat. I'm trying to scare them away with an air rifle...I'm not a good shot but the sound scares them, but sometimes only temporarily. I don't want to stop feeding my beautiful bluebirds but not sure what to do to get rid of these bully birds! :(

Beneficial insects

What's the difference between introducing "beneficial insects" into your garden and introducing an invasive species?

Beneficial Insects vs Invasive Species

The Editors's picture

The difference boils down to competition and the species’ roles in the ecosystem.

Because beneficial insects are generally native or naturalized to the area, they tend to already have a role to play in the ecosystem. This means that their population is unlikely to grow out of control and push out other native species, since they already have a niche to fill and predators to keep them in check. 

Invasive species, on the other hand, are not native to the environment, which means that in most cases they do not fit comfortably into the ecosystem. Instead, they will likely have to push out native species, which can be deadly to those species and detrimental to the ecosystem as a whole due to unforeseen consequences of losing native species (look up the introduction of weasels to New Zealand in the late 1800s for a prime example).

Practically speaking, what this means is that gardeners should only introduce native or naturalized beneficial insects into their gardens. Companies that sell beneficial insects responsibly should know this info and only sell the correct species for your area.


When the starlings try to roost or rest in my 100+ year old white oaks I find that using my Revere Ware copper bottom pan and banging on it with a wooden spoon runs them off. You have to do this as they are trying to stop and roost and they remember and don't come back. They hate that sound and now I have a clean car and driveway.

Starling flock

Last week some starlings were migrating through Naples, Fl. I noticed that they were moving through the trees that had nesting birds. I am certain that they ate the eggs in all the nests because the eggs were gone the next day and the birds were no longer sitting on the nests. Some of the birds began making new nests today in new locations.


I was living in an old, 2 story, rock home in PA.
One day a bird got into my home.
I called my next door neighbor, a farmer, and asked if he'd help me get it out.
He came right over..caught it with his hands...
I was so relieved he was going to set it free...up in the sky...
but, instead he smashed it down onto a rock and killed it. OH...broke my heart.
I asked why...he said if you let this Starling will bring more of it's family & friends
back...and you'll be swamped with them.
So glad to know that :)


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