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2023 Planting Calendar: When to Start Vegetable Seeds | The Old Farmer's Almanac

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Planting Calendar for Elliot Lake, ON

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The planting calendar below tells you when to plant in the SPRING and also plant in the FALL, based on your zip code or postal code.

Fall Planting Calendar

When we say "fall," we really mean planting in summer in time for a fall harvest. Think of this as a second summer! It's easy to keep the crops going if you're already prepared the soil! 

Many crops that would be started indoors for a spring crop can just be plunked into the soil directly for a fall crop. Not only is the soil already warm but also there are less pests and it tends to be rainier so you don't need to water as often. Some fall vegetables need to be harvested by the first frost but also many are frost-tolerant—and even taste better after a kiss of fall frost!

See each plant's individual Growing Guide for more specific planting, plant care, and harvesting information.

Spring Planting Calendar

Our spring planting calendar starts with the very first dates that you can plant (based on the last spring frost). But if you've missed these dates, no worries! This is why we've added "last planting dates" to our spring calendar; this is meant to help new gardeners understand that if they missed the first spring planting window, they can still get crops in the ground.

In fact, many crops with short maturity times (such as radishes) can be succession planted all the way through the summer in northern areas. However, note that some cool-seasons crops such as kale and lettuce do not grow well in hot tempertures, which can cause bolting issues.  For some gardeners, especially in the South, a break to avoid summer heat is needed, but they can start once the heat has passed. 

The dates provided are based on the number of weeks before or after frost, so we can provide a unique calendar to every user in the country. Thus several crops (especially similar crops) may appear to have the same date. Kale and lettuce, for example, or dates for starting seeds, like broccoli and cabbage. 

Specifically, on the charts, there are different columns labeled as follows:

  1. Start Seeds Indoors: When to sow seeds indoors to get an early start on the season.
  2. Plant Seedlings Outdoors: When to put small seedlings that you grew indoors (OR starter plants that you bought at a garden nursery) in the outdoor soil.
  3. Start Seeds Outdoors: When to plant seeds directly into the outdoor soil.
  4. Last Date to Plant: You may plant any time from the "start seeds" dates until this "last date." Don't wait any longer, or the crop won't have time to get to harvest before fall/winter frosts.

The "Moon Dates" indicate the best planting dates based on Moon phases. You can learn more about this age-old technique below.

When N/A appears in the chart, that starting method is typically not recommended, although it is likely still possible. 

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Planting Dates for Fall

On average, your first fall frost occurs on October 7 (at GORE BAY A, ON climate station).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Moon Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds OutdoorsTransplantAverage Days to MaturityFrost Tolerance
ArugulaFrost Aug 19-Sep 23
Moon Aug 19-30, Sep 14-23
N/A40Frost-hardy
BeetsFrost Jul 15-Aug 12
Moon Jul 15-16, Aug 2-12
N/A50Frost-tolerant
Bok ChoyFrost Jul 29-Aug 19
Moon Jul 29-Aug 1, Aug 16-19
N/A50Frost-tolerant
BroccoliFrost Jul 8-15
Frost Jul 29-Aug 12
Moon Jul 29-Aug 1
60Frost-tolerant
CabbageFrost Jul 8-15
Frost Jul 29-Aug 5
Moon Jul 29-Aug 1
90Frost-tolerant
CarrotsFrost Jul 22-29
N/A70Frost-tolerant
CauliflowerFrost Jul 1- 8
Moon Jul 1- 3
Frost Jul 15-22
Moon Jul 17-22
75Frost-tolerant
ChivesFrost Jul 15-Aug 12
Moon Jul 17-Aug 1
N/A70Frost-tolerant
GarlicFrost Oct 21-Nov 4
Moon Oct 29-Nov 4
N/A120Frost-hardy
Green BeansFrost Jul 22-Aug 5
Moon Jul 22-Aug 1
N/A55Tender
KaleFrost Jul 29-Aug 12
Moon Jul 29-Aug 1
N/A60Frost-hardy
KohlrabiFrost Aug 5-26
Moon Aug 16-26
N/A45Frost-tolerant
LettuceFrost Jul 29-Aug 12
Moon Jul 29-Aug 1
N/A60Frost-tolerant
PeasFrost Jul 29-Aug 12
Moon Jul 29-Aug 1
N/A55Tender
RadishesFrost Aug 26-Sep 9
Moon Aug 31-Sep 9
N/A25Frost-tolerant
SpinachFrost Aug 19-Sep 9
Moon Aug 19-30
N/A30Frost-hardy
Swiss ChardFrost Jul 29-Aug 12
Moon Jul 29-Aug 1
N/A60Frost-tolerant
TurnipsFrost Aug 5-19
Moon Aug 5-15
N/A50Frost-tolerant

Planting Dates for Spring

On average, your last spring frost occurs on May 13 (at GORE BAY A, ON climate station, elevation 633 feet).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Moon Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds IndoorsPlant Seedlings
or Transplants
Start Seeds OutdoorsLast Date to Plant
ArugulaFrost Mar 18-Apr 1
Moon Mar 21-Apr 1
Frost Apr 22-May 6
Moon Apr 22-May 5
Frost Apr 15-22
Moon Apr 19-22
Sep 9
AsparagusN/AN/AFrost Apr 29-May 13
Moon May 6-13
May 13
BasilFrost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 1- 5
Frost May 27-Jun 10
Moon May 27-Jun 3
Frost May 27-Jun 10
Moon May 27-Jun 3
Aug 26
BeetsN/AFrost Apr 29-May 13
Moon May 6-13
Frost Apr 15-22
Moon Apr 15-18
May 27
Bell PeppersFrost Mar 3-18
Moon Mar 3- 7
Frost May 27-Jun 3
Moon May 27-Jun 3
N/AJul 15
Bok ChoyFrost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 1- 5
Frost May 27-Jun 3
Moon May 27-Jun 3
Frost May 27-Jun 3
Moon May 27-Jun 3
Jun 24
BroccoliFrost Mar 18-Apr 1
Moon Mar 21-Apr 1
Frost Apr 29-May 13
Moon Apr 29-May 5
Frost Apr 15-22
Moon Apr 19-22
Aug 5
Brussels SproutsFrost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 1- 5
Frost Feb 3-17
Moon Feb 3- 5
Frost Jan 6-20
Moon Jan 6
Jul 1
CabbageFrost Mar 18-Apr 1
Moon Mar 21-Apr 1
Frost Apr 29-May 13
Moon Apr 29-May 5
Frost Apr 15-22
Moon Apr 19-22
Jun 24
CantaloupesFrost Apr 22-May 6
Moon Apr 22-May 5
Frost May 13-27
Moon May 19-27
Frost May 20-27
Moon May 20-27
Jul 1
CarrotsN/AN/AFrost Apr 15-29
Moon Apr 15-18
Jul 29
CauliflowerFrost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 1- 5
Frost May 6-20
Moon May 19-20
N/AJul 29
CeleryFrost Feb 17-Mar 3
Moon Feb 20-Mar 3
Frost May 20-Jun 3
Moon May 20-Jun 3
Frost May 13
Jul 29
ChivesFrost Mar 18-Apr 1
Moon Mar 21-Apr 1
Frost Apr 22-29
Moon Apr 22-29
Frost Apr 22-29
Moon Apr 22-29
Aug 12
Cilantro (Coriander)N/AN/AFrost May 13-27
Moon May 19-27
Jun 3
CollardsFrost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 1- 5
Frost Apr 29-May 13
Moon Apr 29-May 5
Frost Apr 22-29
Moon Apr 22-29
Jul 29
CornN/AN/AFrost May 27-Jun 10
Moon May 27-Jun 3
Jul 22
CucumbersFrost Apr 22-29
Moon Apr 22-29
Frost May 20-Jun 3
Moon May 20-Jun 3
Frost May 27-Jun 3
Moon May 27-Jun 3
Jul 29
DillN/AN/AFrost May 6-27
Moon May 19-27
Aug 12
EggplantsFrost Mar 18-Apr 1
Moon Mar 21-Apr 1
Frost May 27-Jun 3
Moon May 27-Jun 3
N/AJul 29
Fava Beans (Broad Beans)N/AN/AFrost Apr 15-22
Moon Apr 19-22
May 27
GarlicN/AN/AN/A
Green BeansN/AN/AFrost May 20-Jun 10
Moon May 20-Jun 3
Jul 29
Jalapeño PeppersFrost Mar 3-18
Moon Mar 3- 7
Frost May 27-Jun 3
Moon May 27-Jun 3
N/A
KaleFrost Mar 18-Apr 1
Moon Mar 21-Apr 1
Frost Apr 29-May 13
Moon Apr 29-May 5
Frost Apr 15-22
Moon Apr 19-22
May 27
KohlrabiFrost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 1- 5
Frost Apr 22-29
Moon Apr 22-29
Frost Apr 15-22
Moon Apr 19-22
May 27
LettuceFrost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 1- 5
Frost Apr 22-29
Moon Apr 22-29
Frost Apr 15-22
Moon Apr 19-22
May 27
OkraFrost Apr 15-29
Moon Apr 19-29
Frost May 27-Jun 3
Moon May 27-Jun 3
Frost May 27-Jun 10
Moon May 27-Jun 3
Jul 29
Onion SetsN/AFrost Apr 15-29
Moon Apr 15-18
N/AJul 1
OreganoFrost Mar 3-Apr 1
Moon Mar 3- 7, Mar 21-Apr 1
Frost May 20-Jun 3
Moon May 20-Jun 3
N/AJul 29
ParsleyFrost Mar 3-18
Moon Mar 3- 7
Frost May 20-Jun 3
Moon May 20-Jun 3
Frost Apr 15-May 20
Moon Apr 19-May 5
Jul 22
ParsnipsN/AN/AFrost Apr 15-22
Moon Apr 15-18
Jul 1
PeasN/AN/AFrost Apr 15-22
Moon Apr 19-22
May 27
PotatoesN/AN/AFrost Apr 15-29
Moon Apr 15-18
Jul 29
PumpkinsFrost Apr 22-May 6
Moon Apr 22-May 5
Frost May 27-Jun 3
Moon May 27-Jun 3
Frost May 27-Jun 3
Moon May 27-Jun 3
Jun 24
RadishesN/AN/AFrost Apr 15-22
Moon Apr 15-18
Aug 12
RosemaryFrost Feb 17-Mar 3
Moon Feb 20-Mar 3
Frost May 27-Jun 3
Moon May 27-Jun 3
N/AAug 12
SageFrost Mar 18-Apr 1
Moon Mar 21-Apr 1
Frost May 20-Jun 3
Moon May 20-Jun 3
N/AJul 22
SpinachFrost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 1- 5
Frost Apr 22-29
Moon Apr 22-29
Frost Apr 15-22
Moon Apr 19-22
May 27
Sweet PotatoesN/AN/AFrost May 27-Jun 10
Moon Jun 4-10
Jun 24
Swiss ChardFrost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 1- 5
Frost Apr 29-May 13
Moon Apr 29-May 5
Frost Apr 22-May 13
Moon Apr 22-May 5
May 27
ThymeFrost Mar 3-18
Moon Mar 3- 7
Frost May 20-27
Moon May 20-27
N/AJul 15
TomatillosFrost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 1- 5
Frost May 27-Jun 10
Moon May 27-Jun 3
N/AJul 22
TomatoesFrost Mar 18-Apr 1
Moon Mar 21-Apr 1
Frost May 27-Jun 3
Moon May 27-Jun 3
N/AJul 8
TurnipsN/AN/AFrost Apr 15-22
Moon Apr 15-18
Sep 9
WatermelonsFrost Apr 22-May 6
Moon Apr 22-May 5
Frost May 27-Jun 3
Moon May 27-Jun 3
Frost May 20-27
Moon May 20-27
Jul 8
Winter SquashFrost Apr 22-29
Moon Apr 22-29
Frost May 20-Jun 3
Moon May 20-Jun 3
Frost May 27-Jun 3
Moon May 27-Jun 3
Jun 17
Zucchini and Summer SquashFrost Apr 22-29
Moon Apr 22-29
Frost May 20-Jun 3
Moon May 20-Jun 3
Frost May 27-Jun 3
Moon May 27-Jun 3
Aug 5
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