Black-eyed Susan Flowers: How to Plant, Grow, and Care for Rudbeckia flowers | The Old Farmer's Almanac

Black-eyed Susans

Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta)in a field

Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia)

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How to Plant, Grow, and Care for Black-eyed Susan Flowers

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Beloved by pollinators, black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) generally bloom from June to August, often blanketing open fields with their golden-yellow beauty. Learn how to grow this native, deer-resistant wildflower—as well as how to save their seeds for replanting!

What Are Black-eyed Susans?

The “black eye” of black-eyed Susans refers to the dark brown center of its daisy-like flower head. A member of the aster family, Asteraceae, and native to eastern North America, it has become naturalized in Zones 3 to 9. And while some species of black-eyed Susans have additional names—such as Gloriosa daisies—they all belong to the Rudbeckia genus.

Black-eyed Susans grow 1 to 3 feet tall or more with leaves of 6 inches, stalks over 8 inches long, and flowers with a diameter of 2 to 3 inches. Butterflies, bees, and other insects are attracted to the flowers for the nectar. As they drink the nectar, they move pollen from one plant to another, causing it to grow seeds that can move about easily with the wind. 

In the garden, they do well in landscapes, borders, butterfly gardens, or containers. Also, they are outstanding cut flowers.

Black-eyed susans are Sun worshipers that forgive neglect and are tough-as-nails. However, avoid overcrowding these plants or watering their leaves (vs. soil level) which can lead to fungal disease.

Note that varieties can be annual, biennial, or perennial. The popular Rudbeckia hirta is treated as a short-lived perennial. See more about recommended varieties below.


The black-eyed Susan thrives in full sunshine. It tolerates partial sun, but it will not bloom as reliably. It’s best if the soil is fertile (not poor), though this plant can tolerate tough conditions.

When to Plant Black-eyed Susan

  • Set new plants out in the spring after all danger has passed or plant in the fall. The optimal soil temperature for germination is 70° to 75° F. Do not plant in the hot summer.
  • If planting by seed, sow seeds about 6 weeks before the average last frost.

How to Plant Black-eyed Susan

  • Plants should be set 18 inches apart. Remove weeds and loosen the soil. Make a hole a few inches wider than the plant and set in the hole; backfill with soil, tamp gently, and water well.
  • If planting from seed indoors, sprinkle seeds on top of the regular seed starting mix. Do not cover the seed, as they need light to germinate. Plant your seedlings outdoors after any danger of frost has passed. Since black-eyed Susans can spread between 12 to 18 inches, plant seeds closer to prevent lots of spreading, or plant further apart to make a nice border and to prevent the spread of disease.
  • Black-eyed Susan spreads by self-seeding (after the first year) and underground rhizomes; this can result in it overtaking other nearby flowers.
  • Check plants regularly to see if they need watering; avoid letting them dry out, and avoid excess moisture on the leaves, as it can encourage disease. (Provide plants with proper spacing.)
  • Remove faded/dead flowers to prolong blooming and minimize self-seeding.
  • Remove dead plant material in the spring to reduce the risk of infection.
  • Divide perennial types every 3 to 4 years to ensure healthy plants and prevent excessive spreading.
  • Cutting back black-eyed Susan after flowering may result in a second, smaller bloom in late fall.
  • Leave some dried seed heads on the plants in the fall to attract birds.
  • After the first season, black-eyed susans can reseed themselves.
  • To prevent underground spread, dig up rhizomes, and remove the entire piece of root. Even a small section of rhizome can produce another plant.

Cut flowers for display just before buds completely open. Use large blooms as centerpieces and smaller ones as accents. Change the water every day to keep them fresh. Vase life is 8 to 10 days.

How to Collect Seeds of a Black-eyed Susan

Once the seed heads are dry and brown, it’s time to clip some stems. Pop off the seed heads from the stems and toss them in a small jar; close the lid and shake it to loosen the seedheads. Then, dump the seed heads from the jar into a sieve with a white piece of paper below it. Break up the seed heads in the sieve with your fingers. The seeds will come off and fall through the sieve onto the paper! Fold the paper in half and carefully funnel those seeds into a paper envelope. Close and label the envelope and store it in a cool, dry place.

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Wit and Wisdom
  • Black-eyed Susans are meant to symbolize justice. Find out more flower meanings here.
  • The genus name Rudbeckia honors Swedish scientists Olaus Rudbeck (1630–1702) and his son, Olof Rudbeck (1660–1740).
  • The species name hirta means “hairy” and refers to the short bristles that cover the leaves.

Black-eyed Susans are deer-resistant plants.
Diseases: powdery mildew, aster yellows, Botrytis blight, southern blight, angular leaf spot, fungal leaf spot, downy mildew, rustwhite smut, Verticillium wilt.
Pests: aphids, nematodes, slugs, and snails

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