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Kwanzaa 2023 begins on Tuesday, December 26, and lasts through Monday, January 1, 2024. Learn about the origins and traditions of Kwanzaa!
What Is Kwanzaa?
Kwanzaa is a week-long holiday held annually from December 26 to January 1. Fundamentally, it celebrates family, culture, community, and the harvest. The word “Kwanzaa” itself comes from the Kiswahili phrase matunda ya kwanza, meaning “first fruits [of the harvest].”
Kwanzaa focuses on seven essential principles, known as the Nguzo Saba, each represented by one day of the seven-day celebration. These principles are unity (umoja), self-determination (kujichagulia), collective work and responsibility (ujima), cooperative economics (ujamaa), purpose (nia), creativity (kuumba), and faith (imani).
Despite the fact that it is often thought of as a substitute for Christmas or Hanukkah, Kwanzaa is not a religious holiday, and families who celebrate Kwanzaa often celebrate it in addition to Christmas, Hanukkah, or another religious holiday.
You may be surprised to learn that the modern holiday of Kwanzaa is a relatively new creation, though it has its roots in traditions that go back generations. First celebrated in 1966, Kwanzaa is the brainchild of Dr. Maulana Karenga, an African-American author, professor, and activist. It was created with the community and cultural spirit of traditional African harvest festivals in mind, but Kwanzaa itself is uniquely North American, being celebrated mainly in the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean.
When Is Kwanzaa?
Kwanzaa is an annual holiday that begins on December 26 and lasts through January 1.
First Day of Kwanzaa
Last Day of Kwanzaa
Tuesday, December 26
Monday, January 1, 2024
Thursday, December 26
Wednesday, January 1, 2025
Friday, December 26
Thursday, January 1, 2026
Saturday, December 26
Thursday, January 1, 2027
During Kwanzaa, people traditionally decorate their homes with straw mats, ears of corn, and a candleholder called a kinara, which is adorned with red, green, and black candles. Red is said to represent ancestry and unity; black, the people; and green, the fertile land (Africa). A candle is lit for each day of Kwanzaa and celebrants may also exchange gifts.
The entire celebration is capped with a feast on December 31, which is usually held at a community center and features traditional music and dancing.
The Kiswahili phrase Habari gani—meaning “What is the news?”—is used as a greeting among family and friends. (The response to this phrase should be whichever of the seven principles is associated with the current day.)