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Frost Chart for Canada

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Below is a chart showing frost dates in the spring and fall for various Canadian cities. (Also, see our frost dates for U.S. cities.) 

PLEASE NOTE: The reference source for Canadian frost dates is Environment Canada's National Climate Services. Unfortunately, they have not updated the information in many years.  The last time their data set was calculated was for the 1951–1980 Normals. Here at the Almanac, we will certainly update the data as soon as it is made available.

Canadian Frost Dates

If your city is not listed, click here.

Dates below reflects normal averages for a light freeze (29° to 32°F, or -2° to 0°C); local weather and topography may cause considerable variations. The possibility of frost occurring after the spring dates and before the fall dates is 50 percent. The classification of freezing temperatures is usually based on their effect on plants. A light freeze kills only tender plants, with little destructive effect on other vegetation.

City Province Growing Season
(Length in Days)
Last Frost
Spring
First Frost
Fall
Athabasca AB 88 Jun. 1 Aug. 29
Calgary AB 114 May 23 Sept. 15
Edmonton AB 138 May 7 Sept. 23
Elk Point AB 92 June 1 Sept. 1
Grande Prairie AB 117 May 18 Sept. 13
Lethbridge AB 123 May 17 Sept. 18
Medicine Hat AB 128 May 16 Sept. 22
Peace River AB 99 May 26 Sept. 3
Red Deer AB 106 May 25 Sept. 9
Vegreville AB 85 June 5 Aug. 29
Vermilion AB 107 May 25 Sept. 9
Abbotsford BC 177 Apr. 24 Oct. 18
Chilliwack BC 216 Apr. 6 Nov. 9
Dawson Creek BC 84 Jun. 5 Aug. 29
Kamloops BC 156 May 1 Oct. 5
Kelowna BC 156 May 4 Oct. 8
Nanaimo BC 171 Apr. 28 Oct. 17
Nelson BC 159 May 4 Oct. 13
Port Alberni BC 159 May 8 Oct. 15
Prince George BC 91 Jun. 4 Sept. 3
Prince Rupert BC 156 May 9 Oct. 13
Vancouver BC 221 Mar. 28 Nov. 5
Victoria BC 200 Apr. 19 Nov. 5
Brandon MB 105 May 27 Sept. 10
Lynn Lake MB 89 Jun. 8 Sept. 6
The Pas MB 112 May 27 Sept. 17
Thompson MB 61 Jun. 15 Aug. 16
Winnipeg MB 119 May 25 Sept. 22
Bathurst NB 129 May 19 Sept. 26
Edmundston NB 112 May 28 Sept. 18
Fredericton NB 124 May 20 Sept. 22
Moncton NB 125 May 24 Sept. 27
Saint John NB 139 May 18 Oct. 4
Corner Brook NF 142 May 22 Oct. 12
Gander NF 123 Jun. 3 Oct. 5
Grand Falls NF 115 Jun. 2 Sept. 26
St. John's NF 131 Jun. 2 Oct. 12
Halifax NS 166 May 6 Oct. 20
Kentville NS 141 May 16 Oct. 5
Sydney NS 141 May 24 Oct. 13
Truro NS 113 May 30 Sept. 21
Yarmouth NS 169 May 1 Oct. 18
Aklavik NT 76 Jun. 13 Aug. 31
Fort Simpson NT 81 Jun. 3 Aug. 24
Yellowknife NT 110 May 27 Sept. 15
Barrie ON 112 May 26 Sept. 16
Hamilton ON 168 Apr. 29 Oct. 15
Kapuskasing ON 87 Jun. 12 Sept. 8
Kingston ON 160 May 2 Oct. 10
Kitchener ON 139 May 11 Sept. 29
London ON 151 May 9 Oct. 8
Ottawa ON 151 May 6 Oct. 5
Owen Sound ON 155 May 12 Oct. 15
Peterborough ON 124 May 18 Sept. 20
Sudbury ON 130 May 17 Sept. 25
Thunder Bay ON 105 Jun. 1 Sept. 15
Timmins ON 89 Jun. 8 Sept. 6
Toronto ON 149 May 9 Oct. 6
Windsor ON 179 Apr. 25 Oct. 22
Charlottetown PE 150 May 17 Oct. 14
Summerside PE 162 May 9 Oct. 19
Tignish PE 138 May 23 Oct. 9
Baie Comeau QC 109 May 28 Sept. 15
Chicoutimi QC 133 May 17 Sept. 30
Montreal QC 156 May 3 Oct. 7
Quebec QC 139 May 13 Sept. 29
Rimouski QC 139 May 13 Sept. 30
Sherbrooke QC 100 Jun. 1 Sept. 10
Tadoussac QC 141 May 13 Oct. 2
Thetford Mines QC 106 May 28 Sept. 14
Trois-Rivieres QC 124 May 19 Sept. 23
Moose Jaw SK 120 May 20 Sept. 18
North Battleford SK 120 May 19 Sept. 17
Prince Albert SK 93 Jun. 2 Sept. 4
Regina SK 111 May 21 Sept. 10
Saskatoon SK 116 May 21 Sept. 15
Weyburn SK 112 May 22 Sept. 12
Yorkton SK 110 May 23 Sept. 11
Dawson YT 62 Jun. 13 Aug. 17
Watson Lake YT 91 Jun. 2 Sept. 4

The link to more frost dates in Alberta is
www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex10

Related Articles

Comments

I would like to see some

By Linda Truderung

I would like to see some frost info for Northwest Ontario. There is no info for anything west of Thunder Bay in Ontario. I would like to see info for Dryden, Vermilion Bay, Sioux Lookout, and Red Lake included. Our weather conditions are very different, from the rest of Ontario.

The dates shown here for

By Steven Murray

The dates shown here for Victoria are from the Airport, located 25 km north of the city in an area extremely prone to frost. This is not reflective of Victoria. To state that Vancouver and Chilliwack have longer frost free periods than Victoria is, of course, ridiculous. At the Victoria Gonzales weather station, located in the City of Victoria near the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the average frost free period for 1981-2010 was 307 days (Feb. 7 to Dec. 11).

I see lots of information

By joanne French

I see lots of information about frost dates, but we are looking for the average date that the ground freezes with regard to the fall planting of garlic. The cloves generally need three weeks to establish before ground freeze up and wondering if Nov. 15 is too late, or could we expect the ground not to settle into a frozen state 6 inches down until mid December. We are located north of Belleville Ontario. Thanks

talking with a garlic farmer

By nick m

talking with a garlic farmer from Kitchener, i find out that end of Sept mid October the garlic is planted every year regardless of the firs frost date.
i hope this help
nick

Our advice is to plant fall

By Almanac Staff

Our advice is to plant fall garlic soon after the first major winter frost of the year, usually between mid-October and late November depending on your local climate. Cover the garlic with straw to protect it.

I live in the metrotown area

By mason dix

I live in the metrotown area of burnaby bc. Though bordering vancouver to the west & richmond to the south. At just 300m Burnaby sees the number of cooler days & earlier, deeper lasting snows are on ave years considerable in late nov to early march. The 2000's are an exception excluding 2008-09 when buraby saw nearly 200 cm's in a 4 week period. However many such events with temps of -18 (low) & -10 daytime highs though somewhat rare have occuredoccured several winters in the last 60 years. The ave snowfall of 45 cm's at YVR (Richmond) -9' below sea level & where the GVRD has its weather measured is sparsely populated sich that central Vancouver seems a different region many winters. This affects forecasting done in Toronto leaving many of our harshest winter storm post forcasted. The latter 60's early & mid 70's are an example...68-69; 71-72 75-76, 81-82, 84-85;85-86; 88-89;90-91; 92-93; 96-97; 97-
98 some good few examples.The 2000's are less typical excluding a couple years & 2008-09 where we had over 200 cm's from before xmas until Feb...I would love to see data collected for Burnaby heights & the tri-cities...this would with historic charts counted over at least 60 years.

2008-09 wherewe had approxlso

Would love to see dates for

By Moon Curser

Would love to see dates for Bridesville, BC and Rock Creek, BC if possible. I'm at 3500 ft and really need to keep track of that first frost. If I can get past that one, we usually see 2 more weeks of frost free days adding to the very short growing season. Thanks

We do not have frost

By Almanac Staff

We do not have frost information for Bridesville/Rock Creek. Environment Canada is updating their frost information and we hope to get some updated dates in the near future. You can go to http://climate.weather.gc.ca/ and type in your location to get some historical weather data. It looks like your average first frost date is in mid- to late-October.

In 2013 the first frost came

By Moon Curser

In 2013 the first frost came in conjunction with the Harvest Moon, I suppose it varied slightly from ranch to ranch due to the lay of the land. We had 2 nights of "light" frost, then, the very hard frost came about 2 weeks after that. In 2012, (going only from memory), we received the first frost about the same time and had another 2-3 weeks of frost free growing.

I'm trying to decide if it's

By Charmaine Luscombe

I'm trying to decide if it's too late to seed Canola - June 10/2013. I'm looking for frost information for 2012 and predictions for 2013 for Regina, SK area. Can you help? THANKS

You might try

By Almanac Staff

You might try contacting:

1)

Canola Council of Canada
400-167 Lombard Avenue
Winnipeg, Manitoba
R3B 0T6
Phone: (204) 982-2100
Toll-Free: (866) 834-4378

2)

Environment Canada
Manitoba Office (there isn't one in Saskatchewan)
150-123 Main Street
Winnipeg, Manitoba
R3C 4W2
Telephone: 204-984-6203
Fax: 204-983-0964
Email: enviroinfo@ec.gc.ca

3) There is also a service called "Weather One-on-One" where you can talk to an Environment Canada meteorologist on the phone, for a fee per minute (about $2.99 per minute, plus taxes). The number is: 1-900-565-5555

Here is more information about this service:

http://www.ec.gc.ca/meteo-weather/default.asp?lang=En&n=92CD8DE8-1

I appreciate your website

By organicgrowingcanada

I appreciate your website I've got a lot of helpful info in place. But I'm wondering if you could add a few more spots for Nova Scotia such as Bridgewater, Liverpool, Shelburne, Barrington Passage, Clarks Harbour, Digby, Pubnico and Argyle.

We will update all our

By Almanac Staff

We will update all our Canadian frost dates and add locations when Environment Canada has updated their database. You can find some additional locations for Nova Scotia at
www.gardencoacheschat.com/canada-frost-dates/nova-scotia/a-f.html

I am trying to find "Frost

By 21Rouge

I am trying to find "Frost Date" information for my city in Canada but even googling I can only find this stat for only a limited # of Ontario locations. Any ideas where are more comprehensive data base can be found on-line?

We are waiting for

By Almanac Staff

We are waiting for Environment Canada to update their data. For Ontario, at least, you can find more data here: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/climzoneveg.htm

i hoped to see dates for

By Anonymousnof60

i hoped to see dates for Whitehorse, Yukon, which is the Territory's capital

Here are dates for

By Almanac Staff

Here are dates for Whitehorse, Yukon:
June 11, Aug 25
Unfortunately, we can not find this information about frost dates on Environment Canada. So, we have referenced other sources:

http://www.veseys.com/ca/en/learn/reference/frost/canada

http://www.geocities.com/mastergardener2k/frostcanada.html

Dear sirs: To claim that the

By haim avram

Dear sirs: To claim that the Greater Toronto Area has only 149 frost free days,with all due respect,is utterly absurd,even though,toronto's growing season fluctuates considerably from year to year,it's hard to beleave that Hamilton,which is only about 20 miles away from Toronto would have such longer a growing season than Greater Toronto.

These dates are from

By Almanac Staff

These dates are from Environment Canada, compiled from data between 1961 through 1990. We will investigate whether they have made any recent revisions to their dates.

In the meantime, you might check the following Web page from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs. This page lists frost dates from Ontario. According to this study, using data from 1976 through 2000, Toronto is in Zone B, where the average frost dates are April 30 and October 13.

http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/climzoneveg.htm

I would like to see some

By Amanda Gagnon

I would like to see some frost dates for Labrador. NF is not just the island of Newfoundland. I live in Western Labrador and there is nothing for Labrador or even Northern Quebec to estimate off of. Please help.

We will add more locations to

By Almanac Staff

We will add more locations to our chart when we can verify the dates. In the meantime we suggest that you visit the Environment Canada website or www.gardencoacheschat.com/canada-frost-dates/newfoundland.

You have a great almanac for

By Elizabeth Morris

You have a great almanac for many things but your frost dates for Charlottetown,PEI and for Abbotsford,BC are totally incorrect.
I grew up in PEI and lived there for 40 years. Then I moved to Chilliwack,BC twenty years ago.
I am an avid gardener and I know for a fact that PEI gets a late snowstorm every year in May. In fact, I have seen snow in PEI every month of the year except July and August! The frost warning is only up about June 10th or so. ( Call them at Vesey Seeds, Charlottetown, PEI because they would always warn us to not plant seedlings until the frost warning was up in June!
As for Abbotsford, BC---- I live just a half hour drive east of Abbotsford in Chilliwack,BC and Abbotsford's winter/spring weather is definitely warmer than here in Chilliwack. There is a definite difference of earlier warmth in Abbotsford than in Chilliwack. The farther east you go from Vancouver, the cooler it gets in springtime before hot summer weather descends.
Your frost predictions seem about on for Chilliwack,BC but are definitely incorrect for PEI and for Abbotsford,BC.
I hope this helps you with creating a more accurate almanac.

Hi, Elizabeth, Thanks for

By Almanac Staff

Hi, Elizabeth, Thanks for your kind words. The frost data reference is Environment Canada. (We do not create frost dates.) Dates are calculated based on a 30 year rolling average of the last spring and first fall frosts from station data compiled between the years 1961 to 1990. Keep in mind that these trended frost dates do not really address microclimates so your own records may provide a better average for your needs. See more here: http://www.weatheroffice.gc.ca/canada_e.html

What about the full moon June

By Pam Rogers

What about the full moon June 4th? Could this moon create a frost situation in Southwestern Ontario?

Air temperature is not

By Almanac Staff

Air temperature is not affected by Moon phase. It is affected by the season and whether there is a cloud cover, among other things. On a clear night, heat rises from Earth if there is no cloud cover holding it in. This might make you think it's colder because there is a full Moon, but it's really colder just because the sky is clear.

does any one know the frost

By john the farmer

does any one know the frost dates for baddeck ns

hi would like to know the

By chelseas

hi would like to know the frost dates for estler in williams lake bc, its higher up on the mountain so its different than the city
thanks

This is great, thank you!

By Niagara gardener

This is great, thank you! How about St. Catharines (6a and 6b depending where in city https://glfc.cfsnet.nfis.org/mapserver/laasmapper.phtml?MapSize=500%2C500&ViewRegion=Quick+Zoom&minx=1212692.451600&miny=5990124.704610&maxx=1415267.591820&maxy=6192699.844829&imagewidth=500&imageheight=500&CMD=ZOOM_IN&CMD=ZOOM_IN&CHKBOX%5B2057%5D=2057&CHKBOX%5B4240%5D=4240&CHKBOX%5B2700%5D=2700&CHKBOX%5B2701%5D=2701&CHKBOX%5B62129%5D=62129&CHKBOX%5B2511%5D=2511&SET%5B1705%5D=0&SET%5B1305%5D=0&SET%5B11705%5D=0&PREVIOUS_MODE=1&title=USDA+Plant+Hardiness+Zones+In+Canada&title_e=USDA+Plant+Hardiness+Zones+In+Canada&title_f=Les+zones+de+rusticit%E9+de+l%92USDA+au+Canada&NEK=e&LAYERS=2511%2C62129%2C2701%2C2700%2C4240%2C2057&SETS=1705%2C1305%2C11705&mainmap.x=227&mainmap.y=240) and any predictions for last frost for 2012 since it has been one of the warmest with low temps predicted to be higher than seasonal highs for the next couple weeks?

Thank you!

The Abbotsford, B.C. data

By Gardener Green

The Abbotsford, B.C. data can't possibly be correct as it lies between Vancouver and Chilliwack but is slightly more south? The first frost does not come before Halloween, ever. I always leave my houseplants outside until the week of Halloween. The data should be somewhere between Vancouver and Chilliwack data, as Chilliwack is usually a little colder Thanks.

Our data comes from

By Almanac Staff

Our data comes from Environment Canada and the Abbotsford B.C. dates seem to be correct when looking at other sources.

http://abbotsfordwx.com/climate.php

www.gardencoacheschat.com/canada-frost-dates/british-columbia/a-b.html

http://urban-gardener.webs.com/frostdatesforcanada.htm

The data is correct last year

By santa claus

The data is correct last year Agassiz hit 50 F in the middle of winter it was very strange as the only other place was San Fransisco I checked the current temps on google earth. Also we are the hottest spot on record in the fraser valley. 20 minutes east of Chilliwack I guess it must be the mountains holding the heat.

Good Work !

By kate winslet

Hi,
I would like to see some Eastern Alberta spot for freeze and other weather reports.
Thank You !

Hi, Kate, OK, we've added

By Almanac Staff

Hi, Kate, OK, we've added more dates for Eastern Alberta on the chart above. And, if it helps, the link to more frost dates in Alberta is
www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex10

nice information.

By Kripan

nice information.

Hello, all, Environment

By Almanac Staff

Hello, all, Environment Canada provides for 5 locations in Kelowna. We adjusted the date for a longer growing period. Thank you for commenting.

I think the Kelowna and

By shaunasoulfire

I think the Kelowna and Nelson data might be reversed. Kelowna has a much longer growing season and definitely doesn't have first frost by Sept 20th.

The dates given are courtesy

By Almanac Staff

The dates given are courtesy of Environment Canada, and they are the normal averages for a light freeze. As stated above, local weather and topography may cause considerable variations.

The Environment Canada people

By mpom

The Environment Canada people at the airport frequently do not identify the correct conditions on their website, ie the clouds versus sun etc. We have far more frost free days than what information they have supplied you with. Thanks!

Hello! I would like to see

By kmschw

Hello!
I would like to see some Eastern Alberta locations for frost and other weather reports.
Thank You
Ken

Ken, We've added a few more

By Almanac Staff

Ken, We've added a few more dates for eastern Alberta. Also, the link to more frost dates in Alberta is
www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex10

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