Gardening by the Moon: Region 3

Planting Dates for the Northern U.S. and Southern Canada

Radish Seedlings

The Gardening by the Moon 2018 calendar is a longtime Old Farmer’s Almanac tradition. According to this practice, cycles of the Moon affect plant growth.

These are dates for Region 3, which encompasses the northern United States and southern Canada. Which region are you in? Click here for the map.

Note: There are four broad regions across North America. If you prefer, we also offer a regular gardening calendar (not Moon-based) that customizes to zip code level. See the all-seasons gardening calendar.

How to Garden by the Moon

Gardening by the Moon is a great way to help plan your above and below ground crops. Here’s how it works:

  • Plant annual flowers and vegetables that bear crops above ground during the light, or waxing, of the Moon: from the day the Moon is new to the day it is full.
  • Plant flowering bulbs, biennial and perennial flowers, and vegetables that bear crops below ground during the dark, or waning, of the Moon: from the day after it is full to the day before it is new again.
  • The “Planting Dates” column gives the safe periods for planting in areas that receive frost. See our Frost Dates Calculator for first/last frost dates and the average length of the growing season in your area (U.S. only).
  • The “Moon Favorable” column gives the best planting dates based on the year’s Moon’s phases (Eastern Time). See our for the exact days of the new and full Moons.
  • Aboveground crops marked *
  • (E) means early planting; (L) means late
Gardening by the Moon Dates for Northern United States and Southern Canada
Crop Planting Dates Moon Favorable
Barley * May 15–June 21 May 15–29, June 13–21
Beans (Early) * May 7–June 21 May 15–29, June 13–21
Beans (Late) June 15–July 15 June 15–28, July 12–15
Beets (Early) May 1–15 May 1–14
Beets (Late) July 15–August 15 July 28–August 10
Broccoli * May 15–31 May 15–29
Broccoli (Late) June 15–July 7 June 15–28
Brussels sprouts * May 15–31 May 15–29
Cabbage * May 15–31 May 15–29
Carrots (Early) May 15–31 May 30–31
Carrots (Late) June 15–July 21 June 29–July 11
Cauliflower (Early) * May 15–31 May 15–29
Cauliflower (Late) June 15–July 21 June 15–28, July 12–21
Celery * May 15–June 30 May 15–29, June 13–28
Celery (Late) July 15–August 15 July 12–27, August 11–15
Collards (Early) * May 15–31 May 15–29
Collards (Late) July 1–August 7 July 12–27
Corn, sweet (Early) * May 10–June 15 May 15–29, June 13–15
Corn, sweet (Late) June 15–30 June 15–28
Cucumbers * May 7–June 20 May 15–29, June 13–20
Eggplants * June 1–30 June 13–28
Endive (Early) * May 15–31 May 15–29
Endive (Late) June 7–30 June 13–28
Kale (Early) * May 15–31 May 15–29
Kale (Late) July 1–August 7 July 12–27
Leeks May 15–31 May 30–31
Lettuce * May 15–June 30 May 15–29, June 13–28
Muskmelons * May 15–June 30 May 15–29, June 13–28
Okra * June 15–July 10 June 15–28
Onion sets May 15–June 7 May 30–June 7
Parsley * May 15–31 May 15–29
Parsnips April 1–30 April 1–14, April 30
Peas (Early) * April 15–May 7 April 15–29
Peas (Late) July 15–31 July 15–27
Peppers * May 15–June 30 May 15–29, June 13–28
Potatoes May 1–31 May 1–14, May 30–31
Pumpkins * May 15–31 May 15–29
Radishes (Early) April 15–30 April 30
Radishes (Late) August 15–31 August 27–31
Spinach (Early) * May 15–31 May 15–29
Spinach (Late) July 17–September 7 July 17–27, August 11–26
Squashes * May 15–June 15 May 15–29, June 13–15
Sweet potatoes May 15–June 15 May 30–June 12
Swiss chard * May 1–31 May 15–29
Tomatoes * May 15–31 May 15–29
Turnips (Early) April 7–30 April 7–14, April 30
Turnips (Late) July 1–August 15 July 1–11, July 28–August 10
Watermelons * May 15–June 30 May 15–29, June 13–28
Wheat, spring * April 7–30 April 15–29
Wheat, winter * August 11–September 15 August 11–26, September 9–15

Reader Comments

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hascap berrys

I am planting dormant hascap seedlings this october what moon cycle is best ?

Lunar Nodes

Our family has long enjoyed The Farmer's Almanac, and it's accumulated wisdom. Today is the New Moon, and we are in anticipation of a new gardening season! Having reviewed notable amounts of planting advice, I recall being instructed to "never plant on an eclipse or lunar node". Eclipses are well covered in your Almanac, but finding notice of Lunar Nodes has escaped me... where might I find that information? Many Thanks from the White Mountains of New Hampshire!

lunar nodes...

The lunar node is defined the the 2017 Almanac (and every other edition) in the Astronomical Glossary, in this case, on page 128. It is either of two points where a celestial body’s orbit intersects the ecliptic. In ascending phase, the body is moving from north to south of the ecliptic. In descending phase, the body is moving from north to south of the ecliptic. These events are cited on the Right-Hand Calendar Pages of every edition, in symbols defined in the How to Use pages specifically for the Right-Hand Calendar pages. The Moon is descending on May 31.

sweet onions and shallots

because these grown on the ground are they considered above or below ground planting.

onion family

They are considered below-ground plants, so you would plant them during the dark of the Moon (between full and new phases).

trimming grapes.

I appreciate that you post the planting by the moon dates. My grandmother also said to trim grapes in the sign of cancer. Do you have a chart to help me with this?

Planting milkweed for Monarchs

What are the best days for planting milkweed for butterflies in Region 3 (30 minutes west of Minneapolis)?

It’s best to plant milkweed

It’s best to plant milkweed seeds in autumn because seeds need a three-month period of exposure to cold (cold stratification). If you are transplanting seedlings, you could plant in the spring, well after the last spring frost and the soil has warmed up. 

Region 3 What are the best

Region 3
What are the best days for planting garlic in October 2015?

Waning of the moon?
Would they between September 27th to October 13th


October 27th to November 11th?


Hi Johanne, Garlic is a

Hi Johanne,
Garlic is a belowground crop, and as such, when planting by the Moon, one would plant between the full and new Moon--the waning of the Moon, as you suggest. For dates, we go by the day after full to the day before new, so that would be September 28-October 11, or October 28 to November 10. But if your area gets hard frosts, you also want to plant about 6 to 8 weeks before the first expected fall frost, and will need to factor that in. To find your frost dates, see:

For more information about growing garlic, see:

I would like to plant simple

I would like to plant simple "Cherry Globe" radishes a second time in Zone 3...What would be the ideal dates according to the moon from Aug. 01 2015 on?...

Best days to plant radishes

Best days to plant radishes according to the Moon is after the full Moon (July 31). So the best days in August are Aug. 1 to 14 (the date of the next new Moon).

I am feeling a bit

I am feeling a bit overwhelmed by all of the moon planting advice! I am looking through the website and according to this page (2015 garden calendar for zone 3) has a wider range of dates but then the gardening by moon calendar page has even more specific constraints, like for 9th - 10th kill plant pests. Sticking by the moon phases is new to me and I think I might be a little uptight about it all! Haha! Meanwhile, my beautifully prepared garden stands empty and is calling my name! Any feedback would be very appreciated!

Hi, To make it simple we

To make it simple we suggest that you follow the dates on this page. Plant your above ground crops (tomatoes, peppers etc.) between May 18 and Jun 2, and plant any below ground crops (potatoes, onions etc.) between today and May 17.
Good luck!

lol my container garden is

lol my container garden is waiting for me to get it all together.. But the excitement no matter what our garden's outcome, is enough to keep our minds off things less pleasant. I am curious about moon planting. I'm a moonchild too so to me it sounds great to try but yes overwhelming but I like a good challenge. Good luck with your garden. Enjoy the fruits of your labor!!!

Thank you for your great

Thank you for your great website an info .........i just found it bizarre that "big Agri" i.e. Bayer i.e. Montsanto is posting "documentaries" on the promotion of pesticide use on your page ...........? kind of puts me off ............. do you have no say in what ads are displayed on your page ?

I totally agree with this

I totally agree with this comment! any feedback or reply, admins?

What dates are favorable for

What dates are favorable for starting onion seeds indoors in northern Vermont?

Is this guide just acording

Is this guide just acording to the moon phase or is this also by the moon sign.i have an astrological calendar and can figure out best days acording to that as well as this. Thank you all so much. I would be lost without this site to guide me.

These dates are calculated

These dates are calculated around the Moon's astronomical phase. For the very best days to plant you can combine your astrological dates with the dates on this page.

It looks like above ground

It looks like above ground veggies are the 2nd half of the month and root crops the first half, though this is just a generalization.

Does this only apply to a plant's/bulb's/seed's final destination, out in the garden? (no concern of when you start seeds indoors)

This chart gives the Moon

This chart gives the Moon favorable dates to plant in the garden. If you start seeds indoors use this chart for best days to transplant the seedlings.

Well I stumbled upon your

Well I stumbled upon your website and I love it!!! My question though is not for transplanting but for sowing seeds themselves...I have seeds and would like to know if I can still plant them with any hope of success...I am in Zone 3 Toledo, Ohio. I will by seedlings to transplant if I must, but would rather start from organic seeds (non GMO/Monsanto sullied). Planting the usual tomatoes, cucumbers, melon, peppers, onions, carrots, lettuce etc. Hoping to see something grow! Thank you.

Hi Gardeners! This planting

Hi Gardeners! This planting chart is great. I have put it into an excel file so that I can filter/sort by date. I'd be happy to share the file if anyone is interested and hasn't already done this themselves.

Kind regards,

p.s. Almanac Staff's last posted comment indicates that above ground plants should be planted in the "light of the moon"...does that mean literally planting at night? Or just during that phase of the moon? I once read a novel about a lady who planted at night with great success....always thought that this was fanciful fiction and not a true recommendation!

Hi Nellie, Thanks for the

Hi Nellie, Thanks for the kind words. We always smile at the "planting at night." Well, that's always optional! :-)  However, we tend to plant during the day; you may not see the Moon in the Sun-brightened sky, but it's there. If you do, however, want to go out in your nightclothes and a flashlight, it might be a good strategy for finding those slugs!

Good morning Nelli: I would

Good morning Nelli:
I would appreciate the excel file you have prepared for the planting dates. I love gardening and look for ways to help me be a better gardener.
This file sounds very helpful.
Thank you in advance, Nellie, and Happy Mother's Day.


I have a bunch of Iris that

I have a bunch of Iris that were given to me. When is the best time to replant them? I live in Sandusky, Ohio.
Thank you,
Dianne L. Springer

Hi Dianne, The best to time

Hi Dianne, The best to time to replant iris is in July, August, or September when the plants are dormant in the heat of summer. Plant your iris at least 4 to 6 weeks before your first hard freeze or killing frost in Ohio.

I purchased some bareroot

I purchased some bareroot shade trees through the mail, and they arrived much sooner then I expected them to. I read that it is better to plant them in the early spring before they begin to bud out, but we have had a unusually harsh winter this year, and although it is currently late March here in Iowa, we still have some really cold days and nights. No other plants outside are even showing any signs of growth yet. I worry that if I plant them now, that I will be sending them to their doom. Will cold, and possible frost hurt them? I just got them in the mail today, but worry that if I hold off on the planting too long that it will also harm them ... Thank you in advance.