What is Independence Day (U.S.)? Why do we celebrate this all-important American holiday? Learn the meaning behind the 4th of July, a brief history, and some fun facts. Also, refresh your memory with a reading from the Declaration of Independence.
When is Independence Day?
On the 4th of July, the United States observes a federal holiday in honor of the Declaration of Independence. This holiday commemorates the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, by delegates from the 13 colonies.
Note: If the Fourth of July falls on a Sunday, the federal observed holiday is the following Monday, July 5. If the Fourth of July falls on a Saturday, the observed holiday for most federal employees (but not all) is Friday, July 3.
|Year||Independence Day (U.S.)|
|2019||Thursday, July 4|
|2020||Saturday, July 4|
|2021||Sunday, July 4|
What is Independence Day? A Brief History
Independence is declared; it must be maintained.
–Sam Houston, American politician (1793–1863)
The Declaration of Independence is America’s revolutionary Charter of Freedom and the document upon which the nation’s founding principles were established.
The Declaration of Independence Was Not Officially Signed on July 4
On April 19, 1775, during the Battles of Lexington and Concord (Mass.), the first shots were fired between colonists and British troops, starting the American Revolution. After these first military conflicts, tension between Britain and her American colonists continued to mount.
Finally, on July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence from Britain.
Two days later, on July 4, the Congress approved the final draft of the Declaration of Independence, which had been written by Thomas Jefferson and edited by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin.
On July 8, the first public reading of the Declaration took place at the Pennsylvania State House (now Independence Hall) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Later that same day, other readings occurred in Trenton, New Jersey, and Easton, Pennsylvania.
Printer John Dunlap made about 200 copies of the Declaration with the date of July 4. Known as the “Dunlap Broadsides,” these were distributed throughout the 13 colonies.
However, it wasn’t until August 2, 1776 that the Declaration was officially signed. John Hancock, president of the Congress, was the first of 56 delegates who signed this enlarged version, writing in big, bold letters.
Image: John Trumball’s 1819 painting “Declaration of Independence.” This iconic scene with all the delegates present never actually occurred in Philadelphia.
It was on August 4, 1776, after delegates of the Continental Congress had signed the document, that The Declaration of Independence was made official.
The First July 4 Celebrations Weren’t That Much Different!
John Adams considered July 2 the day when Americans declared their independence.
He envisioned the celebration to be one filled with fun and games and fireworks, not one showing off military strength (as one might expect). On July 3, 1776, he wrote these words to his wife Abigail, capturing the spirit of the times:
“Yesterday the greatest Question was decided, which ever was debated in America, and a greater, perhaps, never was or will be decided among Men. A Resolution was passed without one dissenting Colony ‘that these united Colonies, are, and of right ought to be free and independent States, and as such, they have, and of Right ought to have full Power to make War, conclude Peace, establish Commerce, and to do all the other Acts and Things, which other States might rightfully do…’
The second day of July, 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated, by succeeding Generations, as the great anniversary Festival… . It ought to be solemnized with Pomp and Parade, with Shews, Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other from this Time forward forever more.”
On July 18, 1777, the issue of the Virginia Gazette describes the July 4 celebration in Philadelphia:
“The evening was closed with the ringing of bells, and at night there was a grand exhibition of fireworks, which began and concluded with thirteen rockets on the commons, and the city was beautifully illuminated. Every thing was conducted with the greatest order and decorum, and the face of joy and gladness was universal.”
What’s really special about America’s celebration of freedom is that it really isn’t that much different today than it was hundreds of years ago. Many countries have emulated this spirit of celebration ever since.
Refresh Your Memory: The Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence is one of the most important documents in the history of the United States. It was an official act taken by all 13 American colonies in declaring independence from British rule.
The document was originally written by Thomas Jefferson, but Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Jefferson then worked together to make changes. The final draft of the Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776, but the actual signing of the final document took place on August 2, 1776.
Here is an excerpt from the Declaration of Independence (US 1776):
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
We invite you to refresh your memory as an annual tradition. Read a transcription of the complete text of the Declaration at www.archives.gov.
More Fourth of July History
- July 4, 1776: Thomas Jefferson noted in his “Weather Memorandum Book” that the weather was cloudy, the temperature 76ºF.
- July 4, 1826: Both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson—signers of the Declaration of Independence who each later became president—died on the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the declaration!
- July 4, 1884: The Statue of Liberty was formally presented to the U.S. by France.
- July 4, 1911: It was a hot Fourth of July in New England. All-time state records were set in Nashua, New Hampshire (106°F), and Vernon, Vermont (105°F).
4th of July Trivia
While we celebrate with fireworks, let’s not forget the freedom that our founding fathers declared to the world over two centuries ago. Here are some fun facts you may not know about the holiday:
Q. Why is the name “John Hancock” synonymous with “your signature?”
A. Hancock’s bold signature on the Declaration of Independence dwarfed the signatures of the other signers. Legend says that Hancock wanted the king of England to see the rebellious signature without having to wear his spectacles!
Q. When did America actually declare independence?
A. Congress actually ruled in favor of independence on July 2, 1776. But it was two days later, on July 4, that Congress then accepted Jefferson’s document. As a result, John Adams thought July 2 should be Independence Day.
Q. How many people signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4?
A. Only two men signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776—John Hancock, president of the Congress, and Charles Thompson, secretary of the Congress.
Q. What day did most people sign the Declaration of Independence?
A. August 2, 1776.
Q. When did Independence Day become a national holiday?
A. The Fourth of July was not declared a federal holiday until 1938!
Q. Is there something written on the back of the Declaration of Independence?
A. Yes, but not a treasure map like a certain favorite film suggests! The message “Original Declaration of Independence dated 4th July 1776” is written upside down on the back of the Declaration of Independence.
Q. Where is the Declaration of Independence document today?
A. Jefferson’s original draft was lost and the one eventually signed is the “engrossed” document. It is kept at the National Archives in Washington, D.C., for all to see.
Of the 200 printed versions of the Declaration made (called the Dunlap Broadsides), only 27 are accounted for. One of these was found in the back of a picture frame at a tag sale and sold at auction for $8.14 million to television producer Norman Lear. It now travels the country to be displayed to the public.
Q. Where was George Washington when the Declaration of Independence was written?
A. In July 1776, Washington was not in Philadelphia; he was in New York with his troops. On July 9, he received his copy of the Declaration with a note from John Hancock telling Washington to share the news with his soldiers! They were so excited that they rushed over to the Bowling Green and tore down the statue of King George III. Shortly after this, the British, as Washington expected, attacked the colonists and the American Revolution was under way. The colonists fought eight long, hard years (1775-1783) for their independence from Britain.
After the war was over, Washington hoped he would be able to retire and return to Mount Vernon, Virginia. Instead, in 1789, the electors unanimously voted George Washington the first president of the United States. Because it was such an honor, and he felt a great duty to his country, he accepted. He left Mount Vernon on April 16 and arrived in New York City on April 30 for his inauguration. As he took his oath standing on the balcony of Federal Hall, the crowd broke into cheers. The members of his first Cabinet included Thomas Jefferson as secretary of state and Alexander Hamilton as secretary of the treasury.
Celebrating the Fourth of July
In the United States, Independence Day is a federal holiday traditionally observed with parades, concerts, picnic food, and fireworks.
Take a look at our Fourth of July recipes to have a delicious picnic or barbecue—and for a list of patriotic desserts!
Also, be sure to check the American Flag Guidelines so that you can proudly and properly display your flag.
How do YOU celebrate the 4th of July? Fireworks? Barbeque? Both? Let us know in the comments—and have a Happy Independence Day, America!