“Leaves of three, let it be!” “Hairy vine, no friend of mine!” Learn how to spot poison oak, tell the difference between poison oak and poison ivy, and treat a poison oak rash.
What is the Difference Between Poison Oak and Poison Ivy?
Poison oak is a relative of poison ivy. There are many similarities:
- Both plants contain the same toxic resin, urushiol in all parts of the plant (toxic to humans but harmless to animals).
- Both plants have three leaflets, white flowers in spring, and can grow as a vine or a shrub.
- Leaflets can range in size from the length of your thumb to the length of your hand.
- Middle leaflet has a notably longer stem than the two side leaflets, though more obvious in poison ivy than poison oak.
- Depending on the season, leaf color can range from green to orange and even a dark purplish-red.
But they are indeed different plants. In North America, there are two species of poison oak: Atlantic (Eastern) and Pacific (Western).
Poison ivy (left) vs. poison oak (right) Grows at altitudes below 5,000 feet.
How to Identify Poison Oak
- Atlantic poison oak is a low-growing, upright shrub. It can grow to be about 3 feet tall, sometimes giving it the appearance of a vine. Pacific poison oak can grow either as a shrub or a vine, causing it to be even more readily confused with poison ivy.
- Leaf shape resembles an oak leaf (hence the name, poison oak), but it’s not a member of the oak family.
- Leaflets are duller green than poison ivy and usually more distinctly lobed or toothed.
- Leaflets have hairs on both sides, unlike poison ivy.
- While the fruit of poison ivy is the color of pearls, poison oak fruit (called “drupes”) has a tan color.
At the end of the day, just remember: Leaves of three, let it be. In other words, if you see a plant with clusters of three leaves, don’t touch it!
Left: Poison Oak can be red in the fall, and its berries are tan when mature. Right: Poison Oak leaflets showing coloration.
Poison Oak Symptoms
Symptoms of poison oak include itchy red rashes that can resemble burns, swelling, and even blistering.
Symptoms can take 24-48 hours or even up to a week to show up, particularly if its your first exposure!
Poison oak, like poison ivy, contains urushiol. This oily substance is what causes a poison oak rash, and it can be almost impossible to avoid. Upon contact with your body, urushiol immediately forms a chemical bond to the skin and causes an almost unstoppable allergic reaction. Urushiol will stay on clothes, pets, or other materials for months, and its potency lasts. This means that you could even get poison oak without going anywhere near it.
The urushiol resin can cause harsher reactions for those who have been exposed to it before. Sensitivity to urushiol might decrease if you do not come into contact with it until later in life. Only about 15 percent of people are resistant to urushiol, so don’t feel safe around poison oak unless you are absolutely sure you are resistant. You also may become sensitive with repeated exposure, so your resistance might be short-lived.
Danger: Smoke inhalation from burning poison oak can send you straight to the emergency room. Avoid burning this plant!
Image: How Poison Oak symptoms appear: rash and blistering.
Poison Oak Treatment
Your best chance at avoiding a reaction is to treat poison oak within 10 minutes of contact.
Urushiol is not water-soluble! Use strong soaps (like dish soap) and wash with cold water to keep the oils from spreading. Cleanse the area of contact within the first ten minutes, then rinse off with cold water. As urushiol can remain active for years, you’ll want to wash any clothes, items, or furniture that may have come into contact with the invisible oily residue.
If you don’t catch the exposure immediately, treat the resulting itchy rash and blisters topically with calamine lotion, baking soda pastes, aloe vera, and a number of commercial products. If you don’t mind mixing breakfast and skin care, one tried-and-true remedy for itchy skin is oatmeal. Since poison oak rash is the same as the poison ivy rash, see more remedies on our poison ivy page. If poison oak is extremely serious, speak to your doctor about a prescription.
Of course, the best remedy is always prevention; study our photos so you can recognize poison oak.
Have you ever had a run-in with poison oak? Tell us about it in the comments below!