Eclipse History: Total Solar Eclipses in the United States | Almanac.com

Eclipse History: Total Solar Eclipses in the United States

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Aubrey Gemignani/NASA

History of U.S. Eclipses

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With a historic total solar eclipse coming our way on April 8, 2024, let’s look back to eclipses throughout U.S. history. Here are eight of the most notable total solar eclipses that have hit American soil since the signing of the Declaration of Independence!

(How rare is a total solar eclipse? Learn more about how often solar eclipses occur where you live.)

Notable Total Solar Eclipses through U.S. History

Please note: This article has been updated by the Editors since its original publication.

June 24, 1778

The total solar eclipse of June 24, 1778, began in the middle of the Pacific Ocean and swept eastward, passing close to Philadelphia. There, prominent astronomer David Rittenhouse observed it. His comments on the eclipse were published in one of the first volumes of the American Philosophical Society memoirs.

Thomas Jefferson, who was in Virginia at the time of the eclipse, wrote in a letter to Rittenhouse that “[we] were much disappointed in Virginia generally on the day of the great eclipse, which proved to be cloudy. In [Williamsburg], where it was total, I understand only the beginning was seen.” Jefferson went on to humbly request that Rittenhouse send him a more accurate timepiece—one designed to be “for astronomical purposes only.”

David Rittenhouse by Charles Wilson Peale
David Rittenhouse. Portrait by Charles Willson Peale.

October 27, 1780

In 1780, Harvard College commissioned the Reverend Samuel Williams, Hollis Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, to observe the total solar eclipse predicted for October 27, 1780. However, the Colonies were still at war with Great Britain. Professor Williams traveled to what is now Penobscot Bay in Maine, where the British naval officer in charge of the area allowed him to land long enough to make his observations. Unfortunately, the maps of the area were so poor that he found himself just outside the path of totality—a misfortune for which he could hardly be blamed!

July 18, 1860

Accurate observations of solar eclipses in the 19th century were sparse until the solar eclipse of July 18, 1860. The Moon’s shadow came in from the Pacific Ocean near where Portland, Oregon, is now located, then moved northeastward across Washington Territory into Canada. This eclipse is remarkable chiefly for the fact that it put an end to the mystery of the red flames seen around the dark disk of the Moon during totality. Early observers believed the flames were caused by “exhalations” or by volcanoes on the Moon. During this eclipse, the flames—called solar prominences—were proven to have their origin in the Sun, not the Moon. They are a result of the combustion of the hydrogen that envelopes the entire globe of the Sun.

Solar prominences visible during the 1900 solar eclipse.
Solar prominences were photographed during the eclipse of May 28, 1900.

August 7, 1869

The total solar eclipse of August 7, 1869, crossed America diagonally from Alaska to North Carolina. The Moon’s shadow entered the United States from Canada, near Simpson, Montana, and then sped southeasterly across the Midwest to the North Carolina coast and out over the Atlantic Ocean. The eclipse path was almost one continuous observatory, lined from beginning to end with astronomical expeditions. Clear skies prevailed on eclipse day.

One of the most intriguing discoveries made was that the spectrum of the solar corona had a mysterious green line in it. This green line was in the same spectral position produced by iron in the laboratory, but how could iron be present in the corona? The mystery was not solved until 1941 when the corona was proved to include ionized atoms of iron, as well as nickel, calcium, and the rare gas argon, all at a temperature of a million degrees. 

July 29, 1878

On July 29, 1878, over 100 astronomers observed an eclipse along the shadow path from Montana to Texas. During this eclipse, American astronomer James Watson claimed to have seen the much-debated planet Vulcan, which was said to exist between Mercury and the Sun. This body, whose existence had never been scientifically established, had been predicted by the French astronomer L.J.J. Leverrier in 1859 but had never been seen. Watson’s announcement that he had observed the object caused a fruitless half-century search by leading astronomers. Today, we know no planet Vulcan, at least none that could have been seen through Watson’s four-inch telescope.

Lithograph of E. Jones and G.W. Newman, 1846
The theorized position of Vulcan in the solar system. By E. Jones and G.W. Newman, 1846.

Not everyone along the path of totality was an astronomer. A 31-year-old inventor, Thomas A. Edison, had brought a pocket-sized device called a “tasimeter” that he claimed could detect a change in temperature of only 0.000001 degrees. He announced that he was going to measure the heat of the solar corona, but astronomers were not impressed. Nevertheless, Edison carried out his experiment—and the tasimeter was proven ineffective.

March 7, 1970

During the eclipse of March 7, 1970, the Moon’s shadow, traveling at more than 1500 miles an hour and darkening a 100-mile-wide path of totality, crossed the Gulf of Mexico, entered Florida near Tallahassee, and then sped up the Atlantic coast before heading out over the ocean. Cape Cod narrowly missed seeing totality, but Canada’s Maritime Provinces saw the eclipse as total. The maximum duration of totality was almost four minutes!

February 26, 1979

On February 26, 1979, a total solar eclipse—the last such event in the United States in the 20th century—was visible from the Pacific Northwest through northern Canada. The total phase began at sunrise in the North Pacific, with the path of totality sweeping through Oregon (where the skies were, unfortunately, completely overcast), Washington, Idaho, Montana, and most of central Canada and Greenland. The maximum duration along the central line was over two minutes.

August 21, 2017

August 2017 brought the first total solar eclipse exclusive to the U.S. since before the nation’s founding in 1776.

After nearly 40 years, another total solar eclipse was finally visible in the contiguous United States.  â€śThe Great American Eclipse” was the first total solar eclipse from coast to coast since 1918. Viewing events and celebrations were held along the path of totality, which stretched from Oregon to South Carolina. Thanks to the eclipse’s relatively centralized path, the entire continental U.S. had a chance to see at least a partial eclipse. Totality lasted approximately 2 minutes and 40 seconds at its peak. 

Total Solar Eclipse of August 21, 2017, as seen from Madras, Oregon. Photo by Aubrey Gemignani/NASA.
A composite image of the total solar eclipse of August 21, 2017, as seen from Madras, Oregon. Photo by Aubrey Gemignani/NASA.

Thanks to the ubiquity of smartphones and the internet, the 2017 total solar eclipse experienced unprecedented coverage on social media and in the national news. After the eclipse, Space.com put together a great slideshow of images of the eclipse from across the nation.

When is the Next Total Solar Eclipse?

For the United States, the next total solar eclipse that will be visible to American citizens takes place on April 8, 2024! This eclipse will pass from southern Texas up through northern New England. 

Miss the 2024 total solar eclipse; your next chance in the U.S. won’t happen until August 12, 2045! See our 2024 Total Solar Eclipse guide for information.

About The Author

Lewis Boss

Lewis Boss (1846–1912) was an American astronomer. He served as the director of the Dudley Observatory in Schenectady, New York. Read More from Lewis Boss