However, a much larger group of Americans have simply changed their eating habits to decrease the amount of red and processed meats—borne out by the fact that meat consumption in the U.S. has fallen 12 percent since 2007.
Whether it’s a “meatless Monday,” Lenten Friday, or a desire to eat healthier, you can’t go wrong with whole plant foods—beans, lentils, whole grains, nuts, seeds, vegetables, fruits.
Legumes (dry beans, peas, and lentils) are cheap and nutritious. They improve the soils in which they grow. They store well for long periods without refrigeration. They’re incredibly versatile; we use them in soups, casseroles, loaves, and burgers.
Adding Spice Blends
If you are someone who finds legume dishes bland and boring, grinding up a few spice or herb mixtures to sprinkle on them may change your mind. Here are a few of the thousands of traditional spice combinations from around the world you can adopt for your own use; search the web for specific recipes.
Ideally, invest in a supply of whole rather than powdered spices (visit ethnic groceries and health-food stores, or buy them online) and an inexpensive spice mill or dedicated coffee grinder. Most authentic recipes suggest dry-roasting whole spices (or sometimes frying them in a little oil), then grinding them for the most flavorful mixtures. And most mixtures will keep for several months if stored in airtight glass or metal containers.
Baharat:A Middle Eastern/North African mixture of sweet, warm, and resinous spices that comes in many regional variations and goes with everything. We especially love it in a lentil stew that incorporates a lot of chopped fresh Swiss chard.
Za’atar:The sumac listed as a major za’atar ingredient is none other than the dried, red berries of the staghorn sumac that grows in dry waste places around New England as a weed. (See above photo.)
Harissa: A North African staple, harissa is generally prepared as a thick paste, by soaking the dried chilis and blending them with a little olive oil. Control the heat by selecting milder or hotter chilis for your blend.
Quatre épices: Despite its name, which means four spices, and its ubiquity in classic French cuisine, recipes for this mix often contain more than four ingredients and often include allspice and cinnamon.
Garam masala:Masala is a Hindi word meaning “spice mixture,” and each of the diverse Indian cuisines contains various masalas. Garam (meaning “warm”) masala is one of the best-known. Delicious with red-lentil stew.
Berbere:Temper or increase the heat in this classic Ethiopian spice mixture by reducing or adding to the number of dried chilis you use.
Ras El Hanout: This warm and complex spice mixture is a fixture in North African cuisines. Don’t worry about getting the proportions exact or eliminating an ingredient you don’t have handy.
Jerk: A staple of Caribbean cooking, jerk seasonings come in many varieties. This one goes well with any of the black-bean dishes that are favorites in my household.
By the way, most spice or herb mixtures work well as salt substitutes for people on low or no-salt diets, and as flavor enhancers for people trying to cut down on saturated fats.
And any of them can season a vegetable, meat, poultry, or seafood dish. You can also use them as dry rubs or add them to marinades or sauces.
It’s worth noting that all aromatic spices contain numerous health-promoting phytocompounds. Most culinary spices have been used by traditional healers for centuries!
Margaret Boyles is a longtime contributor to The Old Farmer’s Almanac. She wrote for UNH Cooperative Extension, managed NH Outside, and contributes to various media covering environmental and human health issues. Read More from Margaret Boyles