Ladybugs are good for the garden!
Most home vegetable gardeners are looking for ways to control pests without using chemical pesticides. Ladybugs (also known as ladybirds) are one of the gardener’s biggest allies. In this article (with video), we’ll help you identify ladybugs in all of their life stages and share our tips for making your garden a ladybug paradise!
The beneficial bugs found in our gardens vastly outweigh garden pests, so it pays to adopt a nature–friendly approach to gardening. Scour the bushes, look among the vegetables or dig down into the soil and you’ll discover a myriad of beneficials. Our personal favorite? The ladybug, whose jazzy wing markings are always a delight to see.
And ladybugs are one of our biggest allies—as we’re about to find out…
There are many different species of ladybugs, often named according to the number of spots on their wing cases. For example, the two–spot ladybug, the seven-spot ladybug, the 14–spot, and the seriously funky–looking 22–spot ladybug!
The harlequin ladybug is invasive in both North America and Europe and will eat the eggs and larvae of other ladybugs when food is scarce. But they’re not all bad—they eat lots of pests too!
First of all, not all spotted bugs are ladybugs! Our video will show you what they look like. Avoid the lookalikes such as the Mexican Bean Beetle.
Perhaps you know an adult ladybug when you see one, but what about their eggs, larvae and pupal stages?
Both the adults and their ferocious-looking larvae are insatiable aphid-munchers, so they’re an essential part of your garden’s natural pest control team.
The ladybug lifecycle consists of four distinct phases.
Below are the tiny eggs, typically laid on the undersides of leaves in batches of anything from five to 40 eggs. Nettles are a firm favorite for egg laying, so it’s worth leaving a few patches of nettles to keep these aphid–munching beetles close by.
And ladybugs eat lots of aphids. As soon as the eggs hatch, the formidable–looking, spiky larvae begin gorging on any aphids they can find. Their voracious appetites will see them devour up to 50 aphids a day, or 5,000 during their lifetime. They eat other soft–bodied pests too, including whitefly, mites and scale insects, making them one of the long-suffering gardener’s very best friends!
After a series of molts the larva pupates. Often yellow or orange and with black markings, this pupal stage lasts for around one to two weeks during which time the magical transformation from larva to adult beetle occurs.
Then, finally, the adult beetle emerges. The brightly–colored beetles hibernate over winter, usually in groups or aggregations, before mating soon after waking up again in spring, ready to start the lifecycle all over again.
Encourage More Ladybugs Into Your Garden
As well as leaving some nettles be, avoid spraying pesticides, which will have a knock–on effect on predators such as ladybugs. It’s tempting to panic at the first sign of aphids, but a little restraint often pays off with a visit from these hungry bugs.
Ladybugs can also be attracted into your garden with pollen–rich blooms. Flat–topped flowers such as yarrow, angelica, fennel and dill are great, along with common companion plants like calendula, sweet alyssum and marigold.
Offer ladybugs somewhere to overwinter too. They usually hibernate in hollow stems and other nooks and crannies, so delay cutting back old stems till spring. Or why not make your own ladybug hotel by stuffing straw and a bundle of wide bamboo sections into an old pot, tied together to keep them all in place. Stuff more straw around the sides for insulation, and position the ladybug house one to three feet above the ground, in a sheltered, sunny spot.
Ladybugs aren’t the only “good guys.” Read more about beneficial insects in the garden!
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Ladybugs overwinter in groups so one must be careful with early-spring cleanups. Destroy their protection now and they won't be able to survive the cold nights still ahead. For their sakes it is best to leave the untended parts of the garden unkempt till mid-spring.