When is Easter 2019—and why does the date of Easter change every year? How do we determine the date of Easter? What does the date of Easter have to do with the full Moon? What is the Golden Number? Find the answers to all of these questions below, as well as popular Easter traditions, folklore, recipes, and more!
When is Easter 2019?
Easter 2019 will be celebrated on Sunday, April 21.
Eastern Orthodox Church
|2019||April 21||April 28|
|2020||April 12||April 19|
|2021||April 4||May 2|
Easter is a “movable feast” and does not have a fixed date; however, it is always held on a Sunday.
Why is Easter so Late in 2019?
As a rule, Easter Sunday is always held on the first Sunday after the paschal full Moon, which is the full Moon that occurs on or after the spring equinox.
In 2019, the full Moon and the spring equinox occur on the same day: Wednesday, March 20. But wait—wouldn’t that mean that Easter should be held on Sunday, March 24? According to the rule given above, yes. However, because the date of the spring equinox changes over time, the Church ruled that for the purpose of calculating Easter, the spring equinox would always be observed on March 21, even if the equinox actually occurred on the 19th or 20th.
Since the first full Moon after March 21 doesn’t occur until April 19 this year, Easter will be celebrated on Sunday, April 21.
What is Easter Sunday?
Easter is the most important holiday on the Christian calendar—and has been regularly observed from the earliest days of the Church.
Easter Sunday celebrates Christ’s resurrection from the dead, following crucifixion. It marks the end of Holy Week, the end of Lent, and the last day of the Easter Triduum (starting from the evening of Maundy Thursday, through Good Friday, Holy Saturday, and Easter Sunday), as well as the beginning of the Easter season of the liturgical year.
The resurrection represents the triumph of good over evil, sin, death, and the physical body.
How is the Date of Easter Determined?
Would you believe that the date of Easter is related to the full Moon? As noted above, Easter is celebrated on the first Sunday after the full Moon that occurs on or just after the spring equinox. This full Moon is referred to as the “paschal full Moon.”
For simplicity’s sake, the Church has set a fixed date for the equinox, March 21, though astronomically, the vernal equinox may also occur on the 20th (as it does in 2019). The paschal full Moon always falls on the 14th day of a lunar month; because ancient calculations (made in a.d. 325) did not take into account certain lunar motions, it may differ slightly from the actual full Moon date.
Easter always falls on a Sunday between March 22 and April 25.
Eastern Orthodox Church
Certain Christian churches, such as many Eastern Orthodox churches, follow the Julian calendar rather than the Gregorian, either for movable feasts or for all religious observances. In this case, the observance of Easter can occur between April 4 and May 8.
What is the Golden Number?
Readers often ask us about the Golden Number, which was traditionally used in calculations for determining the date of Easter.
The Moon repeats the dates of its phases approximately every 19 years (the Metonic cycle), and the Golden Number represents a year in that cycle. The year of the cycle can then be used to determine the date of Easter.
To Calculate the Golden Number:
Add 1 to any given year and divide the result by 19, ensuring that you calculate to the nearest whole number; the remainder is the Golden Number. If there is no remainder, the Golden Number is 19.
For example, to calculate the Golden Number for 2019, we take 2019 and add 1, resulting in 2020, then divide it evenly by 19, giving us 106 with a remainder of 6. Therefore, the Golden Number for 2019 is 6, meaning 2019 is the 6th year of the Metonic cycle.
Easter Traditions and Folklore
An Easter tradition seen around the world is the coloring of eggs. Bright, artificial dyes are popular now, but some folks still use natural dyes, such as those made from onion skins or beets, to give their eggs a more natural, earthy look. In parts of Eastern Europe, it’s tradition to create intricate designs on the egg with wax or twine before coloring. Learn how to dye your Easter eggs naturally!
Easter folk symbols include:
- Eggs, traditionally forbidden during Lent, symbolize new life. Read more intriguing facts and folklore about eggs.
- The Easter Bunny recalls the hare, the Egyptian symbol of fertility.
- The lamb is said to symbolize Jesus, as it embodies purity and goodness, but also represents sacrifice.
- The Easter lily, with its sheer white petals, symbolizes purity and innocence, as well as the resurrection of Jesus.
Where Did the Word “Easter” Come From?
The exact origin of the word “Easter” is unclear. However, it may have derived its name from the Anglo-Saxon dawn goddess Eostre, whose feast was celebrated each spring at about this time.
Alternatively, it may have derived from words meaning “rising,” “dawn,” or “east.”
From all the Editors here at The Old Farmer’s Almanac, we wish you a Happy Easter and a joyous spring season!