Where Does Black Pepper Come From?

Black Pepper History and Health Benefits

January 29, 2019
Black Peppercorns Mix


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Most of us have a pepper shaker on our kitchen table, but do you know where that pepper actually comes from? Learn all about black pepper, including its history, health benefits, and even how it contributed to European exploration of the Americas.

I got a plant in the mail the other day, and when I unearthed it from all the wrappings, I thought at first that it was just a standard ivy plant. Then I read the tag attached to it: Piper nigrum.

Whoa, I was thrilled! A friend had sent me an actual Piper nigrum plant. I was beside myself with excitement at the thought of growing a plant species that single-vinedly was responsible for the rise and fall of empires. Christopher Columbus learned about the “New World” while searching for a faster route to find black pepper and spices. Now, this is one special plant.

What Is Piper Nigrum?

Piper nigrum is more commonly known as the black pepper plant. Yes, as in the better half of the table condiment duo, salt and pepper, and that’s just my humble opinion. Pepper is the most common spice in the world. The peppercorn is actually the fruit of the plant, and depending on when it is harvested, processed, and dried, it can produce black, green, or white peppercorns. Some people mistakenly group pink peppercorns in here, but pink peppercorns, originating in Peru, have no relation to Piper nigrum and only bear a spherical and culinary resemblance. It’s an easy mistake to make.

Black pepper vine, Piper nigrum
Piper nigrum, the black pepper plant, grows as a vine and may attach itself to nearby trees for support.

Today, global black pepper consumption is estimated to be about 400,000 tons per year and is increasing steadily. In our shop, out of the hundred or so spices and blends we carry, pepper has always been the bestseller.


Piper nigrum belongs to the Piperaceae family and is a climbing vine indigenous to the Malabar Coast of India. Today, however, Vietnam has made huge efforts to become the largest producer of pepper and is responsible for almost one third of the total pepper production worldwide. India, Brazil, and Indonesia produce the remaining two thirds. Oh, and then there is my little pepper plant on my kitchen windowsill in New Hampshire, only a couple years away from producing its own handful of pungent little peppercorn fruit.

Black pepper fruit

Did Pepper Lead Europeans to the Americas?

Pepper may be the one spice that has had the biggest impact on shaping the world. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, Europeans valued pepper so highly that it was often presented as a gift, rent, dowry, bribe, or even to pay taxes.

In the 15th century, Christopher Columbus set out with his three ships in order to find a new trade route to the East Indies. It was believed that by sailing west he would reach the east. The allure with the east was that it was the mysterious source of the coveted spices, largely pepper.


At that time, all the spices that made it to Europe were controlled by the cities of Venice and Genoa. Since the early 8th century, the Arabs and the Venetians had an arrangement in which all spices that crossed the Mediterranean Sea would go through the hands of the Venetians. This monopoly and ability to set the price high is what led to pepper’s status as a luxury item in medieval Europe. Even today, there is a Dutch phrase “pepper expensive” which refers to an item of exorbitant cost.

The Europeans’ rising demand and desire for the spice and the Venetians’ price gouging was impetus enough for Europe to seek out a more direct route for their desired spices, and this kicked off what would later be called the Age of Discovery.


Health Benefits of Pepper: Why We Love It

The love affair with pepper is a spicy one and runs long and deep into our past. While we love pepper for its pungent flavor and ability to disguise bland foods, it also offers medicinal and preservative abilities. It has proven anti-bacterial, anti-microbial and antioxidant properties. The main active alkaloid present in pepper is piperine. It is this chemical compound that is also responsible for pepper’s hot taste and health benefits.

Today, pepper may not be seen as a status symbol as it once was in Europe, but is has earned itself a permanent spot on our dinner tables next to the salt. At my dinner table, “Please pass the pepper,” is my go-to phrase, regardless of the meal being served. Now to just keep my Piper nigrum alive and thriving long enough to see and taste its pungent peppercorns. 

Now learn more about pepper’s partner, salt, in our article, “Six Types of Salt and How to Use Each.”

About This Blog

Melissa Spencer has long had a fascination with plants and doesn’t discriminate between wild, weed or cultivated. She owns Attar Herbs & Spices located in the beautiful Monadnock Region of NH and is celebrating 50 years of service. She actively writes, speaks, and shares ways to infuse herbs and spices into everyday life.

Herbs and Spices really are little bundles of aromatic seeds, barks, berries and leaves. They can enliven the family meal turning the ordinary into the extraordinary and into a fragrant delight of the senses. They can open up a world of exotic cuisines connecting us with faraway cultures and they provide us with amazing health benefits. Follow along for endless ways to spice up life for the taste of it, the joy of it, and the health of it.

Reader Comments

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you article mentioned that Vietnam is becoming the largest producer of pepper. Would the spraying of Agent Orange during the 1970's have any effect on the pepper?

Pepper production

Hi Susan,

What an interesting observation and question. Pepper was brought to Vietnam by the French in the 17th century and really took off as as a major export in the late 20th century. To be honest, I don’t know what effect the spraying of Agent Orange might have had on the growth of piper nigrum. Being an herbicide it certainly would have the potential to create optimal growing conditions however it is beyond my scope to speak of.  Thanks for the question.   

Anything having to do with

Anything having to do with Monsanto should have anyone's suspicions raised on whether the food is truly edible or not. Agent Orange creating optimal growing conditions???? What's with that?

Growing pepper corns

Agent Orange (Dioxin) takes roughly 10-15 years to degrade to half of its original strength, in soil. By this point in time (40 years later), in Vietnam where it was sprayed or used, the toxicity is almost certainly depleted.


After reading the article on pepper, I thought I'd mention that ground black pepper is a great way to stop bleeding. I'm on an anticoagulant medication and even the smallest scratch tends to bleed profusely. A guy I met during one of my bleeding episodes told me to shake some pepper on the cut, I did and the bleeding stopped Immediately. I've used the method several times since and it works every time.


@ Terry White, Thanks for that information. I am always learning new things.


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