Turnips are a cool-weather root vegetable that germinate in only a few days.

Photo Credit
Elena Koromyslova/Shutterstock
Botanical Name
Brassica rapa (Rapifera Group)
Plant Type
Sun Exposure
Hardiness Zone

Planting, Growing, and Harvesting Turnips

Catherine Boeckmann

Turnips are cool-weather vegetables that can be grown both in spring and fall, avoiding the hot summer months. They mature very rapidly and you can enjoy both the greens and the roots. Try this ancient root vegetable that's been grown for over 3,000 years! We'll show you how to plant, grow, and harvest turnips this season.

About Turnips

An autumn crop, seeded in late summer, is usually sweeter and more tender than a spring crop—and pests are less of a problem. What's wonderful about turnips is that they germinate in only a few days. Within a month, you can enjoy their bright greens, and within a second month (60 to 90 days), you can eat the swollen roots.

Turnips can be eaten raw, baked, boiled, roasted, or mashed. Prepare turnips as you would carrots. Or, try them as an alternative to potatoes; we enjoy a turnip gratin.


When to Plant Turnips

  • For a late spring harvest, sow turnip seeds about 2 to 3 weeks before the average last spring frost date.
  • For an autumn harvest, sow turnips in late summer. Sow after summer crops of onions, squash, beans or sweet corn.
  • You can also sow seeds in early autumn for a late autumn harvest.

Preparing the Site

  • The key to growing big turnips is loose soil. In advance, mix in a 2- to 4-inch layer of compost or aged manure in addition to some sand if soil has a lot of clay in order to improve drainage.
  • Turnips grow best in full sun when temperatures range from 40° to 75°F.

How to Plant Turnips

  • Before planting, mix in a nice low organic fertilizer (such as a 5-5-5) about 12 inches into the soil. 
  • Avoid over-fertilizing with nitrogen or you'll get leafy greens at the expense of a big root. Avoid a Miracle Gro or any high-nitrogen fertilizer.
  • Turnips are seeded directly into the garden; they do not transplant well.
  • Sow seeds 1/4 to 1/2 of an inch deep, 1 inch apart, in rows 12 to 18 inches apart.
  • You can also scatter turnip seed and cover the seeds with no more than 1/2 an inch of soil.
  • Water well and consistently.

How to Grow Turnips

  • Once seedlings are 4 inches high, thin them to 4 to 6 inches apart. Crowding can result in small or malformed roots. If you grow them any closer than 4 inches, they're not going to grow.
  • Keep the beds weed-free, but be careful of disturbing the root of young turnips.
  • Mulch heavily to retain moisture and suppress weeds.
  • Turnips do not need much care, but consistent soil moisture is important. Water regularly to keep soil lightly moist; 1 inch per week should prevent roots from becoming tough and bitter.

Avoid Bolting

Turnips are hardy biennials, even though we treat them as annuals. They naturally flower and go to seed (bolt) in the second year. Bolting in the first year could be due to stress, such as caused by extreme temperatures (cold or hot) or lack of nutrients or water. Such stresses can also result in little or no root growth, a root that grows above ground, or greens only.

Be sure to pick turnips before temperatures get into the 80s to avoid bolting.


Click on links for more information about the relevant pest:


How to Harvest Turnips

  • Harvest greens when turnips are small; the leaves taste best when young and tender. Cut leaves 2 inches above the base; they may grow back. Harvest jut a few at a time if also growing for roots.
  • Harvest roots at any time; however, small, young turnips are more ender.
    • Harvest early types after about 5 weeks; maincrop types after 6 to 10 weeks.
  • For fall turnips, consider harvesting after one or two light frosts (but before a hard freeze) for a sweeter taste. 
  • Mulch to harvest later in the season and to protect from a hard freeze.

How to Store Turnips

  • Store for up to 3 or 4 months in a cool (32° to 38°F), dark place such as a root cellar or store in the refrigerator for up to 2 weeks.
  • If storing in the refrigerator, keep turnips in a perforated plastic bag. It's important that the turnips do not dry out, but also that they do not become moldy from too much moisture.
  • To freeze: Peel, wash, cut into 1/2-inch cubes, blanch for 3 minutes, cool immediately in cold water, and drain. Pack into containers, label, and freeze.
Wit and Wisdom
  • "Turnips like a dry bed but a wet head."
  • Turnips are often confused with rutabagas because they are similar, and people like to plant them together. The two root vegetables grow well under the same conditions, but rutabagas take about four weeks longer to mature.
  • In 19th-century Ireland, Halloween jack-o'-lanterns were carved from turnips, not pumpkins. Lit by a candle inside, the grotesque faces were intended to scare away demons and evil spirits.
Cooking Notes

If you're wondering how to cook turnips, you're not alone. Both the turnip greens and roots are very nutritious. Turnip roots should generally be peeled and sliced before using them. Both turnip roots and turnip greens are usually cooked though they can be eaten raw if young and tender.

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Peggy (not verified)

1 month 1 week ago

Peel the turnips before cutting up and blanching. As far a I know..they should,always be peeled.

Thanks, Peggy. Yes, if you plan to freeze turnips: Wash, peel and cut into 1/2-inch cubes. Water blanch for 2 minutes. Cool promptly in cold water and drain. Pack into containers, leaving 1/2-inch headspace. Seal and freeze.

Wren (not verified)

5 months 2 weeks ago

Hello! I'm looking to plant a fall crop of turnips so that they can be tucked into the root cellar for the winter. I live in zone 6a, and by the end of summer, it's still pretty hot here (80's-90's and bone-dry!) by August. What's the hottest temperatures these guys can stand and still germinate? We usually get snow after only after December, so I think I'd have plenty of time for them to mature. Thanks so much--your website is one of my favorites to consult for gardening.

dave (not verified)

1 year 2 months ago

I planted a row of turnips for the first time. It was early spring and the greens looked wonderful but there are no, zero bulbs. Just a root. The soil is loose, compost added and full sunlight most of the day. Any suggestions from this disappointed urban farmer?

The Editors

9 months 1 week ago

In reply to by dave (not verified)

Hi Dave, We're sorry to hear this. Turnips have problems in excessive heat and compact osil but sounds like neither were an issue. We wonder if your compost-heavy soil had too much nitrogen. Lots of nitrogen will result in plenty of leafy growth but poor root growth. We would add some more phosphorus, like bone meal, to the soil if you try again.