Growing Rutabagas

Planting, Growing, and Harvesting Rutabagas

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Though similar to turnips, rutabagas have a sweet flavor and will taste best if harvested past the first few frosts.

University of Virginia

Rutabagas, or swedes, are root vegetables grown for both their golden root and their greens. Midsummer is the best time to plant rutabagas for a bumper fall harvest. Here’s how to grow interesting rutabagas in your garden!

Rutabaga is a cool-weather root vegetable.  It’s actually a biennial plant but typically grown as an annual crop.

They are often mixed up with turnips, however, they actually have a sweeter flavor than these cousins.

The rutabaga root is usually yellow-fleshed while turnip roots are generally white-fleshed. And, unlike turnip greens, rutabaga foliage is smooth, waxy, and blue-green.

They do require very similar care to turnips, though they take longer to reach maturity. They taste best after a couple light frosts. 

Planting

  • Rutabagas can be planted in early summer or midsummer. They , which need 10 to 12 weeks of growing time before the first fall frost. 
  • To sidestep a hot summer, start seedlings indoors and setting them out when it’s cloudy. Or direct seed into the ground and think later to proper spacong.
  • Select a site that gets full sun. Soil should be well-drained. 
  • Before planting, you can prepare the soil with a modest supply of organic fertilizer or composted manure. But note that too much nitrogen can lead to poor bulb formation, so it is best to use only half as much as the product’s label suggests when preparing the bed, with the other half applied a few weeks later, after the plants have been thinned and weeded.
  • Rutabagas are highly sensitive to boron deficiency. Avoid this with a light sprinkling of household borax into the planting row, or you can mix borax with water and douse the planting once, while the rutabagas are young (no more than 3 pinches per plant).
  • Plant seed 2 inches apart and ½-inch deep 
  • Rows should be 14 to 18 inches apart.
  • Seeds should germinate in 4 to 7 days in 45ºF to 85ºF weather. Sustained average temperature over 80ºF might cause excessively fast growth, called “bolting.”
  • After germination, rutabagas should be thinned to at least 8 inches or wider. Do NOT crowd rutabagas or they will grow huge tops with skinny roots.

Care

  • As stated above, apply some fertilizer or composted manure a few weeks after seeding, after the plants have been thinned and weeded.
  • Water at a rate of 1 to 1-½ inches per week, either with rainwater or irrigation. Watering is most important as the roots reach maturity.
  • Control weeds in the area with frequent, shallow irrigation.

Pests/Diseases

Rutabagas don’t usually have pest problems because they studded with prickly hairs. If insects become an issue, cover the plants with a lightweight row cover or something similar.

  • Flea beetles
  • Root maggots
  • Aphids
  • Wireworms
  • Root diseases like clubroot and root knot
  • White rust

Harvest/Storage

Rutabagas are best left in the ground until they get nicely chilled but not frozen. After the first frost or two, harvest your rutabagas (before the ground is frozen).

  • Rutabagas are ready to harvest when the roots are 2 to 3 inches in diameter. Roots at this size will be especially tender.
  • It is best to wait until the roots are 4 to 5 inches in diameter for optimal taste.
  • The roots will push up as they gain size, and garden-grown rutabagas tend to be more top-shaped than round.
  • Rutabaga foliage is edible, but most people prefer young tender rutabaga leaves or, even better, the sprouts which are loaded with antioxidants. 
  • Before storing rutabagas, the foliage should be cut off to within 1 inch of the crown with a sharp knife. Wash the roots lightly before letting them dry for a day in a cool place.
  • Store the roos in plastic bags in the refrigerator, or packed in damp sand or sawdust in a cold basement. They will keep in good condition for 2 to 4 months, depending on conditions.

Recommended Varieties

Wit & Wisdom

  • Rutabagas might have originated from a mix between a turnip and a cabbage.
  • Rutabagas were originally raised and eaten as animal fodder, but humans soon recognized their nutritional and tasteful potential. They are low in calories but high in fiber, and their chief nutrient is carbohydrates.
  • When added to salt, powder from rutabaga seeds is a folk remedy for cancer. Rutabagas, along with other root vegetables, are high in anticarcinogenic compounds.
  • Rutabagas were among the early jack-o-lanterns (they didn’t always use pumpkins!). Try spicing up your Halloween decorations next fall with a carved rutabaga.

Recipes

Cooking Notes

We like mixing rutabaga with potatoes, either as a scalloped dish or as a buttery mashed dish.

Rutabaga is also a favorite in soups and salads.

Just like turnips, they should be washed and peeled before they are cooked or eaten raw.

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Growing Rutabagas

Botanical Name Brassica napobrassica
Plant Type Vegetable
Sun Exposure Full Sun
Soil Type Loamy
Soil pH Slightly Acidic to Neutral
Bloom Time
Flower Color
Hardiness Zones 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Special Features