Wisteria

How to Plant, Grow, and Care for Wisteria

wisteria-plant-page

A high-climbing vine, wisteria blooms vigorously in spring with large, drooping clusters of lilac or bluish purple. 

Note: Two species of wisteria that are typically grown in home gardens are invasive species: Wisteria sinensis or Chinese wisteria, and Wisteria floribunda or Japanese wisteria. The native wisteria is Wisteria frutescens, or American wisteria. If you’re planting a new wisteria, we strongly suggest you avoid the Asian invasive wisteria species. 

How to tell the difference? The Asian species are aggressive growers with fuzzy seed pods while the American wisteria is not an aggressive grower and has smooth seed pods, glabrous fruits and more or less cylindrical, bean-shaped seeds. The native wisteria’s flowers appear after the plant has leafed out, a difference from the Asian species. The blooms only appear on new wood.

The vine may grow 25 to 30 feet long! Wisteria is also beautifully fragrant, providing a feast for the senses. A brown, bean-like pod exists until winter.

Planting

  • Grow in fertile, moist, but well-drained soil. 
  • Plant in full sun. Though wisteria will grow in partial shade, it probably won’t flower. Sun is essential.
  • If your soil is in poor condition, add compost; otherwise, wisteria will grow in most soils. Learn more about soil amendments and preparing soil for planting.
  • Plant in the spring or fall.
  • Dig a hole as deep as the root ball and 2 to 3 times as wide. Space plants 10 to 15 feet apart.
  • Choose a site that will not overwhelm nearby plants, as wisteria grows quickly and can overtake its neighbors.

Care

  • Each spring, apply a layer of compost under the plant and a 2-inch layer of mulch to retain moisture and control weeds.
  • Some gardeners swear by phosphorus to aid flowering. Scratch a couple of cups of bone meal into the soil in the spring and then add some rock phosphate in the fall.
  • Water your plants if you receive less than one inch of rain each week. (To know how much rain you are getting, you can place an empty tuna can outside and measure the depth of water with a measuring stick.)

Pruning Wisteria

  • Pruning is the secret to good flowering.
  • Prune wisteria in late winter. Remove at least half of the prior year’s growth, leaving just a few buds per stem.
  • If you want a more formal appearance, prune again during summer, after traditional flowering.
  • For more blooms, try cutting back the rampant shoots every two weeks during the summer.
  • Do you have a new wisteria? Cut the vine back severely right after planting. Then, the next year, cut the main stem or stems back to 3 feet of the previous season’s growth. Once the framework is full size, shorten further extension growth in midsummer to where growth began for that season.
  • Informally grown, mature plants need little or no subsequent pruning.
  • For a formally trained plant, cut side shoots back to 6 inches in summer, then shorten them again in winter to 3 buds.
  • Wisteria will resprout with vigor if cut back severely, but this pruning should be avoided, if possible, because new shoots may take some years before they flower.
  • Get more tips for pruning wisteria.

Pests/Diseases

  • Dieback, crown gall, leaf spots, virus diseases, Japanese beetle, aphids, leaf miners, scale insects, and mealybugs can be problems.

Recommended Varieties

Wit & Wisdom

Wisteria still not blooming? Some readers have sworn by this method: Take a shovel and drive it eight to ten inches into the ground about a foot and a half out from the trunk to slice into some of the roots. Damage about ½ of the roots and the bush will be shocked into reproduction. It is very difficult to hurt this rampantly-growing, unrestrained, often invasive plant.

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Wisteria

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