Planting Garlic in the Fall

How and When to Plant Garlic

Garlic Bulbs
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Garlic is incredibly useful in the kitchen and surprisingly easy to grow in the garden. Learn how and when to plant garlic so that you can maximize your harvest!

When to Plant garlic

Fall is traditionally the best time to plant garlic in many regions. Just like onions and other plants in the Allium family, garlic is sensitive to daylength and matures during the longest days of summer. Fall planting gives it a jumpstart on the growing season and it will be one of the first things to come up in the garden next spring.

Garlic bulbs

How to plant garlic

Garlic is extremely easy to grow, but good soil preparation is necessary if you want to produce the best and biggest bulbs. They need deeply cultivated, well-drained, rich soil with a pH of 6.4-6.8. Add 2-3 inches of compost and well-rotted manure to the bed before planting.

Use quality seed garlic and plant several different varieties just in case one does poorly. Separate the cloves no more than 48 hours before planting to keep them from drying out. The largest cloves will produce the biggest bulbs. Plant individual cloves, peels intact, pointy end up, 2 inches deep and 6 inches apart.

Mulch 5-8 inches deep with seedless straw. It will pack down over the winter to about 2 inches by spring and help to keep the weeds down during the growing season. Your garlic will form roots but little or no top growth before the ground freezes solid.

garlic_002_full_width.jpg
Garlic emerging in the spring.

Early next spring, you garlic will be ready to grow, sending up tiny green shoots as soon as the ground thaws.

Caring for Garlic Plants

Feed the plants every other week with a liquid fish emulsion fertilizer from the time shoots emerge in early spring until approximately June 1. Water is critical during the bulb forming stage in early summer, so try for an inch a week, including rainfall.

If you are growing hard neck garlic—the best type for the northeast—around the time of the summer solstice, your garlic will send up a seed stalk called a scape. This should be cut off to encourage the plants to put all their energy into bulb formation.

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Garlic scapes.

These stalks curl into a loop and are delicious. Chop them and add to salad, stir fry, soup, scrambled eggs, or any dish you want to enhance with a little garlic flavor. Buzzed in the blender with a little olive oil and parmesan cheese, they make especially good pesto.

Leave one or two flower stalks standing to help you decide when to harvest your garlic. About four weeks prior to harvest, the outer wrappers on the garlic bulbs start to dry, so stop watering in July. Too much water at that stage can stain the wrapper or even cause mold.

Garlic Pests and Diseases

Not too many pests bother garlic, but don’t plant it where you have had trouble with wireworms or nematodes. Disease is more of an issue in poorly drained soils. See our Pest & Diseases Pages for more information.

How and When to Harvest Garlic

Harvest your garlic around the end of July or early August, when the lower third to half of the leaves have turned brown and wilted, but the upper leaves are still green.

It can be tricky deciding exactly when to harvest, which is where the flower stalks can come in handy. If the leaves are starting to turn brown and the scapes uncurl and stand up straight, it is time to harvest.

Storing Garlic

Hang bunches of newly harvested garlic to dry in a cool, well ventilated, shady spot for 3-4 weeks to cure. After the leaves, roots, and outer wrappers are completely dry, brush off any loose soil, trim the roots to 1/4 inch, and cut the tops back to an inch or two above the bulb before storing. Under optimum conditions of near freezing temps and 65-70% humidity, hard neck garlic will keep for five months and soft neck for eight months.

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Labeled garlic ready for storage—or use!

Save your biggest cloves to replant for next year. Old timers say that garlic “learns” because it adapts to your growing conditions and improves each year. Grab life by the bulbs and plant some garlic this fall!

Learn more about garlic on our Garlic Growing Guide page.

About This Blog

Get inspired by Robin Sweetser's backyard gardening tips. Robin has been a contributor to The Old Farmer's Almanac and the All-Seasons Garden Guide for many years. She and her partner Tom have a small greenhouse business and also sell plants, cut flowers, and vegetables at their local Farmer's Market.

Reader Comments

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Pests

This is my first year planting garlic. Some of it is doing well, some not so much. A few of the leaves on each plant have yellow tips, so I pulled a couple to check the bulbs and noticed tiny clear/white worms amongst the roots. Any thoughts on what these are and how to prevent them? We started the growing season with a pretty wet spring... Perhaps I should have removed my mulch to let the soil dry up some? Thanks!

I think you might have onion

I think you might have onion root maggots. They can overwinter in soil where any plant in the allium family has grown before so rotating your garden crops is one way to prevent infestation. The adult is a small gray fly that is attracted to rotting plant material so if any of your garlic bulbs were rotting due to a cold wet start this spring that might be where they started. There can be 3 or more generations of this pest per year in your garden but the worst damage is usually found in the spring. Not much you can do now except pull out the affected plants. Make sure to harvest all the garlic and any other alliums this fall and to plant next year’s garlic well away from any spot that has had alliums growing in it for the past 3-4 years.

garlic

I planted garlic above ground in a table bed in the fall and today i went to see how its doing and there are nothing left of them ? All are gone? What could have happened?

If you live in a cold climate

If you live in a cold climate and the table bed allows frigid air to freeze the bed solidly from all sides I would guess that the bulbs froze and rotted away. I’m surprised because they are a hardy crop. Maybe the bulbs you planted were diseased.

After planting this fall, do

After planting this fall, do I water them before or after mulching?

Unless your soil is really

Unless your soil is really dry or you live in an area that has been experiencing drought, you shouldn’t need to water after planting. If you think watering is necessary it can be done at any time, either before or after mulching but especially before the ground freezes.

Garlic

I live in southwestern Oklahoma around here in altus OK the dirt is hard and rocky so I was going to make beds to grow garlic this is my first time right now it still gets uper 80's here in day time 50 and 60 at night , do you have any tips for me how to start and what I need to do and when? To grow garlic and what other plants veggies or fruit can I grow in the fall ,cold weather will be here soon the weekend of Halloween that when it start really cooling off here , real cold.

Get that garlic planted asap!

Get that garlic planted asap! As for fall crops, they should also have been planted by now. If you can find transplants of cole crops you could try planting them with the stipulation that when the temps get below freezing you are going to need to protect the plants with row covers or grow them in a cold frame. It is late to be starting veg from seed but you could try spinach, a leaf lettuce bred for winter growing, mache, or radishes. Again, when the weather gets really cold they will need protection. I know it is hard to think about planting a fall garden when the temperatures are still in the 80s or above but many of the plants need to be started then, whether direct seeded into the garden or started in the house to transplant later. Check out the Almanac’s All Season Gardening Calendar for planting dates for your area.

container garden

Can I plant these in a container?

growing garlic in containers

Yes, it’s possible to grow garlic in containers that are sized at least 8 inches diameter and provide the same depth so the roots have enough room. Just add compost, and plant 1 inch deep (4 inches apart) and don’t plant too close to the edges of the container.

Elephant Garlic

Elephant Garlic
Could you tell me whether the same planting, growing, harvesting and storing advice applies to Elephant Garlic as applies to regular garlic. Also, can the cold temperature and humidity advice (to achieve a long saving time) that you provide for garlic be applied to Elephant Garlic, and can those cold temperature and humidity conditions be achieved by keeping the Elephant Garlic (or regular garlic) in a refrigerator? Thank you for your help.

Elephant garlic (Allium

Elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) is a leek, not a garlic.  It’s ready to harvest when about 30% of the foliage is starting to yellow. In many regions, this point comes in mid-May or June. If harvest is delayed past that point, the bulbs begin to split open, revealing the individual cloves.

Growing Garlic

I grew my own garlic this year and want to replant for next year. Do i split open each group that comes apart and plant one piece in each hole or do I plant the entire thing?

That is the wonderful thing

That is the wonderful thing about garlic. You plant just one section or clove and you get a whole head of cloves in return. Separate the cloves right before planting to keep them from drying out. Plant the largest ones and eat the rest!

gardening

I have learned several new things about garlic. This is my first time growing it. I had problems with something digging some bulbs up and when I replanted some came up real close together. I hope they will not be too deformed!
althea

Even if they aren’t perfect

Even if they aren’t perfect looking they will taste great and be worth the effort!

Garlic planting

I planted my garlic in the fall. We had a warm fall and the garlic started to sprout. The stems were about 4 inches tall. When it got cold the sprouts turned brown. Will this garlic still grow?

When to plant is always a

When to plant is always a conundrum, especially with the climate changing. Traditionally we have always planted garlic on Columbus Day here in NH but now I wait until November because our falls have been so warm and the garlic does sprout prematurely. Your plants might have suffered a small setback but they should regrow this spring just fine.

I'm in southern Ontario and

I'm in southern Ontario and have had garlic grow 4 inches in the fall before freeze up without any problem. Good luck!

grlic

I have been growing garlic for about 3/4 years and I am happy with what I get, but I would like to get bigger cloves, so how do you know want kind of garlic you get when you buy it from a farmer that growes it every year,& I get my veg from him & how do you know what is hard neck & does it matter, please advise me ,.Ann

Hi Ann, Sorry I did not see

Hi Ann, Sorry I did not see your questions sooner! If your garlic farmer doesn’t know the name of the varieties he is selling, you could try buying some named varieties from a catalog or online. We started out with named varieties and work very hard to keep them separate and well marked so we can market them accurately.  Replanting the largest cloves each year will give you the biggest heads of garlic in the fall though sometimes, if they are really large, they will form a double with 2 small heads. Hard necks have a stiff center stalk while softnecks are braidable. Which to grow depends on your climate. The hardnecks are hardier and do best in colder climates while the softnecks do great in warmer areas. They say that garlic learns meaning it adapts to your growing conditions and over time the heads will get larger.

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