# A Chance of Rain: What Does This Really Mean?

## How to Calculate a Chance of Rain

When the local weather station (or your weather app) says that there is an “80% chance of rain,” do you assume that this means you have an 80% chance of getting rained on? Not true. Bob Berman explains what a “chance of rain” really means!

If you’re a sky watcher like yours truly, the first step in observing the sky is having decent weather. We probably all check the forecast from time to time. But relatively few of us know how to make sense of it.

Many of us would assume that an ”80% chance of rain’ means you have an 80% chance of getting rained on. This sounds logical but is incorrect.

Guess again. Does it mean there’s a chance of rain across 80% of the forecasted area? Nope. That’s because weather forecasts give their “percentage chance” in probabilities.

The answer? An “80% chance of rain” means an 80% chance that rain will fall somewhere within the forecasted area. Rain refers to 0.01 inch or more of water falling from the sky.

Confused? If you want to understand this further, read on.

## How to Calculate a Chance of Rain

So let’s say the forecast goes like this: Sunday, 40% chance of rain; Sunday night, 40% chance of rain; Monday, 40% chance of rain.

Now, maybe you’re a gardener and really want it to rain (consider catching the rain by using rain barrels in your garden!). Or, perhaps you have a stargazing session or outdoor event planned and desperately want it NOT to rain.

The question is simple: If the Weather Service’s forecasts are accurate, what are the chances that it will rain sometime during the period?

What do you think? With a 40% chance tomorrow, tomorrow night, and then again the next day, what’s the likelihood we’ll get rain any time during that entire time span?

Here’s how you calculate it. Stick with me for a few minutes. This is fun, as long as you don’t totally hate math.

1. First, you determine the odds that it won’t rain.  In this case, it’s 60% for each of the three periods in question.
2. So, you grab your calculator and punch in 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6, which equals 0.216. Bingo: those are the odds that it will not rain during the entire three periods in question. It is 21.6%.
3. Finally, you subtract this from one to get the chance that it will rain: 78.4%. Roughly speaking, there’s an 80% chance it will rain. Amazing, right?

Let’s do another for practice.  Say the Weather Service predicts only a 30% chance of rain or snow today, and again tonight and again tomorrow.

1. First, you determine the odds that it won’t rain.  In this case, it’s 70% for each of the three periods in question.
2. Now you multiply 0.7 x 0.7 x 0.7, which equals 0.343, which means a 34% percent chance of no precipitation falling.
3. Thus, there is a 66% chance that it will rain or snow during the period.

If this sounds illogical and you’re unconvinced, consider that 30% is roughly a one-in-three chance.  Pretend you had three marbles in a bag, one red and two green.  You blindly reach in and pull out a marble. What are the odds you’ll get the red one?  It’s one in three, right?

But now, pretend you get three chances. If you first pull out a green one, you throw it back and get another try, and then a third try. Doesn’t logic tell you that with three chances, you’re likely to succeed? Similarly, with three chances for rain, even if it’s just a one-in-three probability each time, you’ll likely get wet when the three periods in question have elapsed.

Just thought we’d get this out of the way.

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#### Bob Berman

Bob Berman, astronomer editor for The Old Farmer’s Almanac, covers everything under the Sun (and Moon)! Bob is the world’s most widely read astronomer and has written ten popular books. Read More from Bob Berman