Autumnal Equinox 2019: The First Day of Fall

Facts & Folklore About Fall

September 5, 2019
Autumnal Equinox - Fall Road
Pixabay

In 2019, the autumnal equinox—also called the September equinox—will arrive on September 23 in North America. Wondering why it’s called an equinox? 

Autumn has caught us in our summer wear.
–Philip Larkin, British poet (192286)

When is the Autumnal Equinox?

In 2019, the autumnal equinox occurs on Monday, September 23, at 3:50 A.M. EDT. The equinox occurs at the same moment worldwide; adjust for your local time zone.

Year Autumnal Equinox (Northern Hemisphere)
2019 Monday, September 23
2020 Tuesday, September 22
2021 Wednesday, September 22
2022 Thursday, September 22

What is the Autumnal Equinox?

Autumn days come quickly, like the running of a hound on the moor.
Irish proverb

The autumnal equinox—also called the September or fall equinox—is the astronomical start of fall in the Northern Hemisphere and of spring in the Southern Hemisphere.

What is an Equinox?

The word “equinox” comes from Latin aequus, meaning “equal,” and nox, “night.” On the equinox, day and night are roughly equal in terms of length.

During the equinox, the Sun crosses what we call the “celestial equator”—an imaginary extension into space of Earth’s equator line. The equinox occurs precisely when the Sun’s center passes through this line. When the Sun crosses the equator from north to south, this marks the autumnal equinox; when it crosses from south to north, this marks the vernal equinox.

After the autumnal equinox, nights begins to grow longer than the days. This ends with the December solstice, when days start to grow longer and nights shorter.

Fall bridge

Fall Weather

It is the summer’s great last heat,
It is the fall’s first chill: They meet.

–Sarah Morgan Bryan Piatt

Another definition of fall is “nights of below-freezing temperatures combined with days of temperatures below 70 degrees Fahrenheit (21°C)”. From here on out, the temperatures begin to drop.

Will fall bring crisp, cool weather—or, unseasonably warm weather? It depends on where you live! Find out the forecast for your area in The Old Farmer’s Almanac!

Fall Foliage

Note that fall foliage isn’t due to current weather conditions. This is a common misconception. Leaves change color because of the amount of daylight and photosynthesis. Learn more about autumn leaves.

Japanese maple leaf in fall

Fall Equinox FAQs

Q: Are Day and Night Perfectly Equal on the Equinox?

A: No. Even on the equinox, day and night aren’t perfectly equal! However, they are very close to equal (the lengths may be off by only a few minutes). Why does this happen?

It depends where you live. On the equinox, the center of the Sun is above the horizon for 12 hours. However, “sunrise” is said to begin when the upper edge of the Sun’s disk becomes visible above the horizon (which happens a bit before the center rises) and ends when the entire Sun has set. In this case, daylight is longer than 12 hours.

Not only that, but the Sun is actually visible when it is below the horizon, as Earth’s atmosphere refracts the Sun’s rays and bends them in an arc over the horizon. Yes, you can actually see the Sun before the edge actually reaches the horizon! This causes daylight to be longer than 12 hour as well.

Did you know our rise/set tool now provides day length? In Dublin, New Hampshire—home of The Old Farmer’s Almanac—our day length on the equinox is 12:08 hours. See day length where you live

Q: Is the Autumnal Equinox Really the First Day of Fall?

A: Based on the astronomical definition of seasons, yes, the autumnal equinox does mark the first day of fall (in the Northern Hemisphere). However, according to the meteorological definition of seasons, which is based on temperature cycles and the Gregorian calendar, the first day of fall is September 1.

Q: Can You Balance An Egg On the Equinox?

A: There’s an old-wife’s tale that you can stand an egg on its end of the equinox. Well, yes, but it’s not just on the equinox. Still, it’s a bit of fun. Try it yourself! 

See more fun facts and myths about the old, misunderstood equinox from Almanac astronomer, Bob Berman.

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Signs of Fall

What are your local signs of fall? In many regions of the Northern Hemisphere, the landscape silently explodes with vibrant colors of red, yellow, and orange. The leaves begin to drop off the trees, providing endless hours of jumping into leaf piles for kids and raking them back up for parents!

Trees snapping and cracking in the autumn indicate dry weather.

Fall also brings some wonderful holidays, including Halloween and Thanksgiving, which carry us through the season until temperatures begin to drop, nights begin to get longer, and all the woodland critters start storing up for the long haul of winter

And don’t forget about the end of Daylight Saving Time, when we “fall” back, setting our clocks back one hour and regaining an hour of precious sleep!

Plants and trees are slowing down, as sunlight decreases, to get ready for the colder season ahead. In the garden, asters and chrysanthemums bloom beautifully as orange pumpkins and corn mazes abound.

Football season is warming up and so is sweater weather.

Also notice the arc of the Sun across the sky each day as it starts shifting south. Birds and butterflies migrate along with the path of our Sun!

Of course, you can you can easily notice the later dawns and earlier sunsets. See our sunrise/set tool for your area!

Purple Aster
Aster flowers

Ancient Autumn Traditions 

The fall equinox has been a day of celebration for cultures since ancient days. People tracked the transitions of the Earth’s journeys around the Sun.

  • At Machu Picchu in Peru, an ancient stone monument called Intihuatana—which means “Hitching Post of the Sun”—serves as a solar clock to mark the dates of the equinoxes and solstices.  
  • In Mexico, the Mayans built a giant pyramid called Chichen Itza. On the equinoxes, it looks as if a snake made of light slithers down the pyramid’s steps.
  • In England, Stonehenge was also built with the equinoxes and solstices in mind.

See Five Ancient Sites Aligned With the Equinoxes and Solstices.

Enjoy Autumn!

Wishing a colorful, cool, cozy autumn to all our Almanac readers. Tell us your favorite things about the fall season below!

To learn more about all four seasons and see when they begin, see First Day of Seasons.

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Reader Comments

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I must say I agree as well. I

I must say I agree as well. I think it is healthier for us to start when the sun comes up and stop when the sun goes down. No need to keep DST anymore. Even here in the North the days are too hot.

I think all states should

I think all states should abolish DST. It
worked for Arizona!!

Interesting. I hate dst and

Interesting. I hate dst and I fear the summer. I live in the southwest and some people can handle it, but most are confined to living indoors with AC. This summer many nights were warm and one night at middnight it was 85 degrees. Never cooled down for weeks. It's hell.

I live in Arizona we do NOT

I live in Arizona we do NOT participate in Daylight Savings Time. As I travel to see friends in Nevada I have to adjust time 1 hour when I arrive. Makes me wonder what's the significance of the concept and the purpose of it, I'm told by elders HITLER used it to get more work out of people in general.

Really? There's no DST in

Really? There's no DST in Arizona? Interesting... I thought EVERYONE adjusts their time twice a year. Well, you learn something new everyday! I'm in NY state and we do the DST. I prefer the autumn one where we GAIN an extra hour of sleep! But I suppose it IS unnatural; we should accept the natural times and cycles of the planet the way they are naturally.

It was Ben Franklin.

It was Ben Franklin.

I love and enjoy each season

I love and enjoy each season in its time. Spring and fall are the nicest for they usually avoid the extremities of temperature. However, note the word, "usually" for there are occasional exceptions to this rule. At my age and in my health, I have learned to submit to the statement of the Apostle Paul, "I have learned in whatsoever state I am in, therewith to be content," just to be with my family and good friends, and to know the presence of the Good Lord, makes each season a blessing to enjoy.

Sorry, I'm not a fan of fall,

Sorry, I'm not a fan of fall, because winter comes right after. If I had my way, I'd go to sleep after Thanksgiving dinner, and not wake up until St. Patrick's Day. Bears have the right idea...hibernation!

I don't like SPRING because

I don't like SPRING because right after comes summer which means fall is next and then the WINTER! Oh woe is me, I'm not happy with what I have been given!!!

:DDDD

:DDDD

I love the comment, "the

I love the comment, "the leaves are changing or turning", actually the color that remains after the trees have stopped making chlorophyl(sp) is the true color of the trees leaves.

That's certainly true for the

The Editors's picture

That's certainly true for the carotenoid pigments. In autumn, as sunlight decreases and days get shorter, leaves make less and less sugar. Eventually, the chlorophyll pigments (which give leaves their green color) decrease and the green color in the leaves begins to fade. Eventually, photosynthesis finally stops, and the veins at the bases of the leaf stems sometimes close, trapping sugars.

As the chlorophyll fades, any yellow, orange, or gold carotenoid pigments that are present in the leaf are revealed.

If there are lots of sugars trapped in the leaf, and there is plenty of sunlight, anthocyanins, (red, blue, or purple pigments) may be produced as the leaf begins to die. These can combine with carotenoids to produce brilliant orange and red leaves. (Some plants have anthocyanins in their leaves throughout the growing season, such as many purple-leaved plants. In these cases, the leaves contain a higher concentration of anthocyanins than chlorophyll pigments.)

I didn't know that. Sugar!

I didn't know that. Sugar! Thanks for for sharing your knowledge.

Ilove the fall time of

Ilove the fall time of year.The things that i love the most is taking my grandkids to the mountain skyline drive in VA its get no better than that.

Actually, the hours of

Actually, the hours of daylight begin decreasing with the Summer solstice and continue to decrease until the Winter solstice.

That's correct. Starting at

The Editors's picture

That's correct. Starting at the summer solstice, when the length of daylight is longest, the day length (daylight) begins to get shorter.
 
Around the time of the autumn equinox, the shortening daylight, which had previously been longer than the night, becomes the same length as the night (12 hours each). (The exact time of equal day and night will depend on one's location, and may not occur precisely at the time of the equinoxes.)
 
After this equal point, the day length continues to shorten, but is now shorter than the length of night. At the winter solstice, the length of daylight becomes its shortest for the year.

THE QUESTION I ASK IS THE

THE QUESTION I ASK IS THE EQUATOR MOVING NORTH BECAUSE I WAS IN FLORIDA AND THE SUMMER HEAT WAS INTENSE AS FOR WINTERS THE LAST SNOW STORM IN PHILLY WAS 1993 WAS THE WORST I EVER SEEN IS PHILLY GOING TO HAVE A SNOWSTORM LIKE IN 1993

I can tell when autumn is

I can tell when autumn is closing in. The leaves turn a dull green/grayish. I love the Fall-my spirit is never as alive as when autumn comes. Cant wait for the big storm that blows gusty cool wind signaling the true autumn season. Fire pit and friends along with the smell of burning leaves. Awesome!

Dear Mr. Pumpkin, I also love

Dear Mr. Pumpkin,

I also love the fall. To me it is a time for renewal, and it is a time to reflect on what may lie ahead. I love the smell of fall. The leaves when they are wet, and the wood burning in the fire pit. I love the taste and the smell of apples, including hot apple cider, apple pies, and caramel apples. I love the fall county fairs, and beginning of football season. I love going to the park and tossing the football while looking at the bright orange and red color of the leaves as they fall to the ground from the trees. Mr. Pumpkin I hope you have a lovely fall and by reading your words, I know that you will appreciate every moment. Peace - "Elle"

Ny fall in New England

Ny fall in New England unofficially began last Sunday when I went apple picking and had Apple Cider Donuts! Best time of the year!

I agree with you I live in

I agree with you I live in the san francisco bay area and the summer is hot and sometimes sticky, and I know when the fall approach is time for some renewal and some relief I love the fall season

My favorite season! I too

My favorite season! I too love the smell of burning leaves and wood burning fireplaces. Here we have truly awesome sunsets in the fall. I could never understand those who say "everything dies and it gets dark so early". Love being cozy.

There is no Fall season like

There is no Fall season like Virginia beautiful colored leaves and beautiful mountain sunsets.The winters are great too snow on the mountain tops,great time for skiing and snow boarding.In the summer plenty beautiful green trees to keep you cool.The spring you smell the green grass and the leaves and the rainy month of April.Seasons in Virginia are like the four seasons you read about Wonderful!

Ms. Mitchell, I saw your

Ms. Mitchell, I saw your name. It took me back in time. I knew a woman named Zenobia (different last name of course) when I was 12. She played a pivotal role in my young life. Zenobia. It is such a beautiful, unique name. As I'm sure you are too. Be well.

IN MINNESOTA ITS LIKE FREAKIN

IN MINNESOTA ITS LIKE FREAKIN FREEZING!!!!!!!!!!!

I agree. I live in

I agree. I live in MinneSNOWta too. I don't like fall because it means winter is on its way. I can't stand winter. It's too cold and too much snow. Every year, as I get older, it gets worse. The leaves changing colors are definitely pretty and I love the smell of the crisp cooler air...just don't like what follows. Winter sucks!! Fall....has its good points and its bad.

Autuimn

I also live in Minnesota. I love autumn, the leaves, the smells, the sweaters, fireplace, campfires etc, but here autumn does not last long and winter stays for a long time. I think our short Autumn really makes us appreciate the fall weather while we have it.

October 19th and the evenings

October 19th and the evenings are cool again in Los Angeles after the latest round of hot days (hopefully the last until next year). I love that golden light from the autumn sun in the late afternoon. I wish I lived in an area with lots of deciduous trees...I'd be loving the color.

What are the different

What are the different factors that would make for an "Indian Summer"?

Hi, Brad, Good questions.

The Editors's picture

Hi, Brad, Good questions. Different folks have different interpretations. The Old Farmer's Almanac has long adhered to the saying, "If All Saints' (November 1) brings out winter, St. Martin's (November 11) brings out Indian summer." Here's our page on Indian Summer and the criteria: http://www.almanac.com/content...

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