When Do the Seasons Start 2018–2019

When Do Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall Start?

Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter 360

When do the seasons—spring, summer, fall, and winter—start? Here are your equinox and solstice dates for 2018 and 2019—plus the definition of the astronomical season versus the meteorological season.

When Do the Seasons Begin?

Each season has both an astronomical start and a meteorological start. It sounds complicated, but trust us, it’s not! The astronomical start date is based on the position of the Sun in relation to the Earth, while the meteorological start date is based on the 12-month calendar and the annual temperature cycle. See below for a more in-depth explanation.

The First Days of the Seasons

Note: These times are based on Eastern time (ET). Subtract 3 hours for Pacific time, 2 hours for Mountain time, 1 hour for Central time, and so on.

Seasons of 2018 Astronomical Start Meteorological Start
SPRING Tuesday, March 20, 12:15 P.M. EDT Thursday, March 1
SUMMER Thursday, June 21, 6:07 A.M. EDT Friday, June 1
FALL Saturday, September 22, 9:54 P.M. EDT Saturday, September 1
WINTER Friday, December 21, 5:23 P.M. EST Saturday, December 1
Seasons of 2019 Astronomical Start Meteorological Start
SPRING Wednesday, March 20, 5:58 P.M. EDT Friday, March 1
SUMMER Friday, June 21, 11:54 A.M. EDT Saturday, June 1
FALL Monday, September 23, 3:50 A.M. EDT Sunday, September 1
WINTER Saturday, December 21, 11:19 P.M. EST Sunday, December 1

Astronomical Season vs. Meteorological Season

The astronomical start of a season is based on the position of the Earth in relation to the Sun. More specifically, the start of each season is marked by either a solstice (for winter and summer) or an equinox (for spring and autumn). A solstice is when the Sun reaches the most southerly or northerly point in the sky, while an equinox is when the Sun passes over Earth’s equator. Because of leap years, the dates of the equinoxes and solstices can shift by a day or two over time, causing the start dates of the seasons to shift, too.

In contrast, the meteorological start of a season is based on the annual temperature cycle and the 12-month calendar. According to this definition, each season begins on the first of a particular month and lasts for three months: Spring begins on March 1, summer on June 1, autumn on September 1, and winter on December 1. Climate scientists and meteorologists created this definition to make it easier to keep records of the weather, since the start of each meteorological season doesn’t change from year to year.

Because an almanac is an astronomical “calendar of the heavens,” The Old Farmer’s Almanac follows the astronomical definition of the seasons. However, we have listed both dates for each season above.

Why Do the Seasons Change?

We have the four seasons because of shifting sunlight (not temperature!)—which is determined by how the Earth orbits the Sun and the tilt of our planet’s axis.

Equinox solstice cycle
Photo Credit: NASA

Spring

On the vernal equinox, day and night are each approximately 12 hours long (with the actual time of equal day and night, in the Northern Hemisphere, occurring a few days before the vernal equinox). The Sun crosses the celestial equator going northward; it rises exactly due east and sets exactly due west. See our First Day of Spring page

Crocus field spring

Summer

On the summer solstice, we enjoy the most daylight of the calendar year. The Sun reaches its most northern point in the sky (in the Northern Hemisphere) at local noon. After this date, the days start getting “shorter,” i.e., the length of daylight starts to decrease. See our First Day of Summer page

Sunflower bees

Fall

On the autumnal equinox, day and night are each about 12 hours long (with the actual time of equal day and night, in the Northern Hemisphere, occurring a few days after the autumnal equinox). The Sun crosses the celestial equator going southward; it rises exactly due east and sets exactly due west. See our First Day of Fall page.

Fall leaves

Winter

The winter solstice is the “shortest day” of the year, meaning the least amount of sunlight. The Sun reaches its most southern point in the sky (in the Northern Hemisphere) at local noon. After this date, the days start getting “longer,” i.e., the amount of daylight begins to increase. See our First Day of Winter page.

Winter solstice

What’s your favorite season—and why? Let us know in the comments below!

Reader Comments

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I live in the southern US

I live in the southern US state of Texas. I knowof only 4 seasons here in Texas. HOT, cold,
Wet & Dry. And I'm a bible believer. LOL!

That is pretty much similar

That is pretty much similar with that of Nigeria.

I agree! :) living here on

I agree! :) living here on the southern Oregon coast for the last three years, after spending my whole life in the midwest, I can safely say that there ARE in fact two seasons here. Wet and Dry. Summers here are generally average of 60-75 with only fog to water the trees and plants, and in the winter around 55-65 with rain rain rain ;) Not sure if this is true or not but this part of the country is the last rain forest in the United States.

In Australia. New Zealand n

In Australia. New Zealand n Sth Africa we start winter on 1st day of June. This ERROR happend bcos we were started by the English who thought summer started sooner bcos it was hotter than ther homeland. They didnt factor in these places are closer to th equator. So they started seasons, falsley, earlier. Brisbane Sydney Caberra Melbourne Hobart Adelaide Perth all have warmer temperature averages in 1st 3weeks of March than 1st 3weeks of December. The same in reverse when talkin of winter.

Completely wrong! You must be

Completely wrong! You must be referring to the meteological accounting seasons which generally start on 1st. The English seasons start 21st, 22nd just like elsewhere.

um.. but like, these are the

um.. but like, these are the equinoxes and solstices, they aren't saying that it is the start of the seasons all over the world.... so... i'm confused, somebody help...

John is right - you are

John is right - you are incorrect and, from the tone of your email, not a lover of the Brits.

Who ever said that in the

Who ever said that in the southern hemishpere Winter would officially start on the first of June rather than on the 21st in line with our winter solstice. If I was a farmer I would still be planting according to the cycles of the moon anyway.

Dear google Winter in the

Dear google Winter in the Southern Hemisphere begins on the first of June- what you need to do is google yourself.

Does anyone else find it a

Does anyone else find it a bit weird to call tomorrow the "first day" of Summer. Since it marks the end of the lengthening of daylight it really is the middle of the warmer half of the year (in the n. hemisphere) even though it usually gets hotter over the next two months in that hemisphere. And do we really have four seasons? Our year is really more correctly thought of as biphasic instead of quadriphasic: a warmer half and a cooler half. I realize that the way we name our seasons long predates our understanding of the reason we have seasons and it is more fun to anticipate a seasonal change in quarters rather than halves but it isn't really based on rationality--and that's okay, too. There, I've put my two cents in.

Hi Rick, in Australia we're

Hi Rick, in Australia we're in the 1st month of winter. Our 'seasons' officially start: winter, 1st June; spring, 1 September; summer 1 December; Autumn (fall) 1 March.

Cate, glad to hear from "down

Cate, glad to hear from "down under" (another northern conceit, though, isn't it; who decided the s. hemisphere is the "bottom" anyway?). By official start, I assume you mean by arbitrarily agreeing to call it so rather than based on the way the planet is moving along in its orbit, right? It doesn't suddenly get cooler on June 1, does it?

Yep, it's just an arbitrary

Yep, it's just an arbitrary date. Most people realise that it doesn't really start changing temperatures until the solstices/equinoxes.

But, really, none of the

But, really, none of the calendar dates for what we call the seasons is associated with any kind of sudden temperature change. At the Autumnal equinox, maple leaves don't suddenly turn red. We basically move gradually between warm weather to cool weather to back again over and over. The idea of four separate, distinct seasons is really related more to social customs and human activity like agriculture (for planting, growing, harvesting and fallow times) isn't it?

The dates for the beginning

The dates for the beginning and end of months are based on the Gregorian calandar. If you go further back to the more pagan calandars, you'll find that the dates that are currently used for beginning/end of the seasons were actually the middle.

The beginnings were Samhain (October 31), Imbolc (February 2), Beltane (May 1), and Lughnasadh [Lammas Day] are the beginning.

The middle of the seasons are Yule/[Christmas], Ostara[Easter], Midsummer, and Mabon[Mid-Autumn]

Thank you Marie Mayer for

Thank you Marie Mayer for being an intelligent person.

I agree with Kera, thank you

I agree with Kera, thank you for being an intelligent person! We Celebrate the pagan holidays and season changes because they're all nature based and not religion based.

I'll say it too, thank you

I'll say it too, thank you Marie Mayer!

You're spot on. Somebody told

You're spot on. Somebody told me that 21st June is the first day of Summer. I said, "Where?" They replied, "Everywhere!" I think Australians would beg to differ! But it got me thinking. Taking into account all the astronomical, geographical, longitudinal, latitudinal,oceanic, climatic and meteorological variables, every day must be the first day of summer somewhere in the World? Strange how easy it is for most people in the World to believe that the exact opposite is true? I think that might be 3 cents worth. Sorry!

My thoughts exactly - why is

My thoughts exactly - why is the summer or winter solstice the Beginning of that season? Shouldn't it mark the mid-point? How can it be that Winter in the S Hemisphere starts on the 21 June Winter Solstice when immediately after that point the days start getting longer? Doesn't make sense to me.

It is long overdue to do away

It is long overdue to do away with the counting of time on the basis of the Holy Roman Empire Anno 2013. With all the high tech, instant coffee and archeological findings the Collective Mind still is bullied by religions spearheaded by the Vatican. It would be a great advancement for our grandkids when the Collective Mind would show higher awareness and determine a point of substance on which basis to count time instead of the Holy Roman Empire. Quadriphasic keeps you on your toes for harvesting.

THANK YOU!!!!!! that is

THANK YOU!!!!!! that is all....

I'm a little confused -- when

I'm a little confused -- when you refer to the Holy Roman Empire, do you actually mean the Roman Catholic Church? Those are two completely different things.

Today is the Winter Solstice in the North Hemisphere. It's been winter for a few weeks here, but it's a typical Georgia winter; we may get a record high of 75 F today. I miss snow.

There is a great site that

There is a great site that details the actual progress of the seasons as based on the quarters and cross-quarters: http://www.archaeoastronomy.com/ - it also provides an animated star clock that shows where we currently are in the orbit of the earth as of today and the tilt of the earth as it progresses through the orbital cusp point. Also, it was earlier mentioned that the tilt of the earth's axis is 23.5 degrees - that is incorrect - the current tilt of the earth's axis (as of mid-2013) is 23.439 degrees. The tilt of the earth's axis is affected by many factors, some regular and predictable (related to the precession of the equinoctes and the effecct of lunar gravity) and others unpredicatble (e.g. redistribution of mass due to earthquakes) - for instance, the great earthquakes of 2004 in the Indian Ocean basin and in 2011 at Japan in the Pacific Ocean basin actually slightly affected the tilt of the earth by moving larges masses of the Earth's material closer to the centre of the Earth. The Earth's axial tilt is currently decreasing, and may vary between 22.1 and 24.5 degrees. It is postulated that when the Earth's tilt is at the maximum point of 24.5 degrees is when ice ages typically occur - and as well, ice ages also have an effect on the axial tilt, since they redistribute large amounts of mass (i.e., ice) towards the geographic poles. The after-affect of this mass redistribution is still being felt due to crustal rebound of areas of the Earth that were under massive volumes of ice during the most recent ice age (for instance, the Hudson Bay basin in Canada is currently rebounding by close to 2cm per annum due to the removal of the Laurentian ice sheet following this most recent period of global climate warming [unrelated, BTW, to any human-induced warming of the climate]).

Thank you so much for the

Thank you so much for the educated answer on the tilt of the earth. I knew the earth changed it axis recently but did not know it was linked to major earthquakes. I will be visiting the website you suggested. Great explanation. I too live 'downunder' and yes our date for the beginning of seasons is different to the north. Does anyone know the history of this fact?

Are there different first

Are there different first days of seasons in different countries? Im doing a report and can't answer what date spring starts in Greece.

The astronomical definition

The astronomical definition of when a season begins (such as the March equinox: spring in the Northern hemisphere; fall in the southern) applies everywhere around the world (a set point in time, converted to local time zone).

However, different countries may celebrate the seasons at different times. For example, in Bulgaria, March 1 is often celebrated as the beginning of spring. Also on March 1, Helidonismata is a traditional Greek observance that celebrates the return of the swallows, marking spring's return, as well.

You might also be interested in Greek mythology as it relates to spring: the story of Demeter and Persephone.

In Russia winter officially

In Russia winter officially starts on 1 of Jan, spring on 1 of March, summer - on 1 of June and Autumn on 1 of September.

the references to 'the

the references to 'the longest day' and the 'shortest day' is in error. Each day of the year consists of 24 hours--it's the length of daylight hours that varies! I recommend you change the word day to daylight in order to be accurate.

Actually, To call a day

Actually, To call a day exactly 24 hours is incorrect in every regard except the one on people's wrists (that is to say, the times when we arbitrarily assign tasks so everyone has a medium of understanding.) Also, the day varies by several seconds from thousands of subtle variables (including the earth's distance from the sun.)

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