Summer Solstice 2019: First Day of Summer

When is the First Day of Summer 2019?

May 23, 2019
Sunflower with Bees

The timing of the June solstice—or, summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere—varies between June 20 and June 22, depending on the year and time zone. See the time and date of the Summer Solstice 2019, as well as solstice facts and FAQs.

When is the Summer Solstice?

In 2019, the summer solstice will occur on Friday, June 21, at 11:54 A.M. EDT.

Year Summer Solstice (Northern Hemisphere)
2019 Friday, June 21
2020 Saturday, June 20
2021 Sunday, June 20
2022 Tuesday, June 21

What is the Summer Solstice?

In the Northern Hemisphere, the June solstice (aka summer solstice) occurs when the Sun reaches both its highest and northernmost points in the sky. (In contrast, the June solstice in the Southern Hemisphere is when the Sun is at its lowest point in the sky.)

The word “solstice” comes from Latin solstitium—from sol (Sun) and stitium (standing), reflecting the fact that on the solstice, the Sun appears to stop moving in the sky as it reaches its northern- or southernmost point. After the solstice, the Sun appears to reverse course and head back in the opposite direction.

The timing of the June solstice is not based on a specific calendar date or time; it all depends on when the Sun reaches its northernmost point from the equator. Therefore, the June solstice won’t always occur on the same day. 

In temperate regions, we notice that the Sun is higher in the sky throughout the day, and its rays strike Earth at a more direct angle, causing the efficient warming we call summer. Because the sun is highest in the sky on this day, you’ll notice that your shadow (at noon) is the shortest it will be all year.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the summer solstice is the day with the most hours of sunlight of the whole year. See our handy sunrise and sunset calculator to figure out how many hours of sunlight you get in your location on the solstice.

At the winter solstice, just the opposite occurs: The Sun is at its southernmost point and is lowest in the sky. Its rays hit the Northern Hemisphere at an oblique angle, creating the feeble winter sunlight.

See 7 fun facts about the June solstice!

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Is the Summer Solstice the First Day of Summer?

A: Yes and no—it depends on whether we’re speaking meteorologically or astronomically. Most meteorologists divide the year into four seasons based on the months and the temperature cycle, which allows them to compare and organize climate data more easily. In this system, summer begins on June 1 and ends on August 31. Therefore, the summer solstice is not considered to be the first day of summer, meteorologically speaking.

Astronomically, however, the first day of summer is said to be when the Sun reaches its highest point in the sky, which occurs on the summer solstice (June 20–22). Therefore, the summer solstice is considered to be the first day of summer, astronomically speaking.

As an almanac, which is defined as a “calendar of the heavens,” we prefer to follow the astronomical interpretation of the seasons and do consider the first day of summer to coincide with the summer solstice. That being said, you may choose whichever system you like best!

SUnflower field

Q: Why Doesn’t the Summer Solstice Fall on the Same Date Each Year?

A: The summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere ranges in date from June 20 to 22. This occurs in part because of the difference between the Gregorian calendar system, which normally has 365 days, and the tropical year (how long it takes Earth to orbit the Sun once), which has about 365.242199 days. To compensate for the missing fraction of days, the Gregorian calendar adds a leap day about every 4 years, which makes the date for summer jump backward. However, the date also changes because of other influences, such as the gravitational pull from the Moon and planets, as well as the slight wobble in Earth’s rotation.

Q: Why isn’t the summer solstice—the longest day of the year—also the hottest day of the year?

A: Earth’s atmosphere, land, and oceans absorb part of the incoming energy from the Sun and store it, releasing it back as heat at various rates. Water is slower to heat (or cool) than air or land. At the summer solstice, the Northern Hemisphere receives the most energy (highest intensity) from the Sun due to the angle of sunlight and day length. However, the land and oceans are still relatively cool, due to spring’s temperatures, so the maximum heating effect on air temperature is not felt just yet. Eventually, the land and, especially, oceans will release stored heat from the summer solstice back into the atmosphere. This usually results in the year’s hottest temperatures appearing in late July, August, or later, depending on latitude and other factors. This effect is called seasonal temperature lag.

Q: What is Midsummer Day (June 24)?

A: Historically, this day was the midpoint of the growing season, halfway between planting and harvest. Folks celebrated by feasting, dancing, singing, and preparing for the hot summer days ahead. Read more about the ancient Quarter Days!


Solstice Fun Facts

The solstice does NOT bring the earliest sunrise

Interestingly, even though the summer solstice if the “longest” day of the year (the most daylight), the earliest sunrises happen about a week prior to the solstice in the Northern Hemisphere. The reason for the timing of sunrises is related to the length of day—which is longer than 24 hours in June—and the inclination of the Earth’s rotational axis. Bottom-line, your earliest sunrises start happening before the solstice itself.

See YOUR sunrise times!

The Sun sets more SLOWLY at the solstice

Did you know that the Sun actually sets more slowly around the time of a solstice, in that it takes longer to set below the horizon? This is related to the angle of the setting Sun. The farther the Sun sets from due west along the horizon, the shallower the angle of the setting Sun. (Conversely, it’s faster at or near the equinoxes.) Bottom-line, enjoy those long romantic summertime sunsets at or near the solstice!

See YOUR sunset times!

Seasons on Other Planets

  • Mercury has virtually no tilt (less than ⅓0th of a degree) relative to the plane of its orbit, and therefore does not experience true seasons.
  • Uranus is tilted by almost 98 degrees and has seasons that last 21 years. 

See sunrise/set times for all the planets!

Solstice Traditions

Every year on the summer solstice, thousands of people travel to Wiltshire, England, to Stonehenge—a mysterious prehistoric monument. See more about this ancient site.

In Sweden, people traditionally celebrated the beginning of summer by eating the first strawberries of the season. They also celebrated—and still celebrate—a holiday known as Midsummer’s Day, which is one of the four ancient quarter days of the year. Learn more about Midsummer’s Day.

Eating strawberries is the perfect way to celebrate the June solstice, since June’s full Moon is also known as the Full Strawberry Moon. It typically coincided with the ripening of the strawberries in what is now the northeastern United States.


There are many northern people like the Swedes who celebrate Midsummer’s Eve, too, dancing around the bonfire on the shortest night of the year. After all, these northern people have merged from some long, dark winters! In the Austrian state of Tyrol, torches and bonfires are lit up on mountainsides.

According to ancient Latvian legend, Midsummer Even (St. John’s Eve) on June 23 is spent awake by the glow of a bonfire and in pursuit of a magical fern flower—said to bring good luck—before cleansing one’s face in the morning dew. Read more about fern folklore.

Summer Solstice Folklore

  • Deep snow in winter, tall grain in summer. –Estonian proverb
  • When the summer birds take their flight, goes the summer with them.
  • If it rains on Midsummer’s Eve, the filbert crops will be spoiled. –Unknown
  • One swallow never made a summer.
  • Easterly winds from May 19 to the 21 indicate a dry summer.
  • If there are many falling stars during a clear summer evening, expect thunder. If there are none, expect fine weather.

When does fall start? Click here to see the first date of each season.

Reader Comments

Leave a Comment

If the Summer Solstice is the

If the Summer Solstice is the first day of Summer, how come it's called Midsummer's Day? It can't be both the beginning and the middle of Summer.
Summer is the season that follows Spring and is followed by Fall (or Autumn). By age-old convention, in the Northern Hemisphere, the Summer months are June, July and August. The Summer Solstice has nothing to do with it.

Laurie, do you know of

Laurie, do you know of Shakespeare's great comic/romance play, "A Midsummer's Night Dream"? It takes place during the Summer Solstice, the longest daytime period of the year followed by the shortest nighttime period of the year in June...a time for magic, whimsy, beguilement, & fantasy.
"Midsummer" is also an agricultural term that indicates the 1/2 way mark between planting in the spring & harvesting crops in the fall :) You can check in the Oxford English Dictionary for further origin details.

Laurie, these are facets of

Laurie, these are facets of traditional reckoning of time. Light is steadily increasing up until the summer solstice, and as soon as the solstice has passed, daylight begins to decrease. So while it is the first day of summer by the almanac, by traditional reckoning of time the solstice is more naturally a midpoint: Midsummer.

The same happens at the winter solstice, when we sing "In the Bleak Midwinter." The winter solstice is the longest night of the year.

It helps, I think, to look at the natural year like a clock: the summer solstice is kind of like noon, or midday. The winter solstice is kind of like midnight. Hence midsummer and midwinter. It takes a bit of getting accustomed to, but these are old, old ideas more attuned to the natural seasons.

I talk about this traditional reckoning of time thing quite often in my Convivio Book of Days Blog, easily found through a web search. Best, John Cutrone

Laurie, I would recommend

Laurie, I would recommend checking out the "Wheel of the Year" which reflects a more accurate and ancient division of time and seasons. Pagans have celebrated these dates for centuries. The solstices and equinoxes are always at mid-points in the seasons. The popular calendar uses the four celestial events as a matter of convenience to mark four seasons. The "Wheel" divides the year more accurately for those who farm, and offers twice the reasons to celebrate.

Summer Start and Mid-Summer

Summer Start and Mid-Summer are just made up terms for the solstice. It is the sun at its zenith in the Northern Hemisphere. It doesn't matter if you call it "Sun Day!"
Yes, it used to be called Mid-Summer on this day. Now it is called the first day of summer. Not a big deal. I like thinking of it as the first day of summer due to the earth's lag time in temperature. The world and water heats during the May-July months making it generally hotter in August. We earthlings want to acknowledge to our young that summer is hot. Winter is cold. We have now made the solstice the start of summer because it corresponds to the hot-cold formula more regularly.
I like to call it baseball season!

Summer 2013 is an important

Summer 2013 is an important Summer because the house always wins meaning a deck of playing cards is divisible four ways! But the house lost in Miami last night so have a wonderful Summer 2013!

June 21st is a very special

June 21st is a very special day indeed for my firstborn child & only son arrived on this day in 1981. Everyone laughs when I remind them how auspicious that day truly was in our household! In 1981 you see June 21st was the longest day, first day of summer plus Father's Day. My husband became a Father for the first time that day! I can also attest to the length because my labor lasted for 20 hours! Memories made & memories yet to be made await us all each & everyday so please enjoy yourselves as this wonderous warm weather season begins!

Oh Wow, lots of things

Oh Wow, lots of things happened for on this day in 1981.
20 hr labor? Thats no fun. I am glad you made it through. Enjoy the summer :)



I live in o side ca and I

I live in o side ca and I will ccntinue. To kiss the sunset away as we do every day when as the sun sets on a beautiful day omg I love life,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, I am a cancer girl you know that I am loving it,,,,,,,,,,,,!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Bring on summer solstice I love my man, and he loves me! He is the greatest man in the world or to watch him surf in to the sunset might be good as well or paddle out with him!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Or go to the sun set fair on Thursday night. Enjoy your summer!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

When I was a youngster,

When I was a youngster, living in the northern latitudes, I place rocks on the north side of the house that marked the shadows of the summer and winter solstice and that of the equinox. While others celebrated the First Day of Spring, I celebrated the arrival of Sunshine on the rock equinox! The Day marked the moment when the sun arrived on OUR side of the equator! On that day I would skip school and in later years, take the day off work, in celebration!

But even at a young tender age, I had noticed that the rock nearest the house, would be in sunshine for only a few days. I watched the lengthening shadows after the summer solstice in June, and as a teen, realized that late June must actually be mid-summer!

I also knew it would be a short time before the sun would warm waters enough to go swimming! But the first day of summer meant school was out, and I would play and frolic
till the lengthening shadow nearly reached the rock of The Equinox!

That really is quite

That really is quite romantic.

To: The Old Man Dan Re:

To: The Old Man Dan
Re: When I was a youngster

Wow! What a wonderful memory! Thank you for sharing it here!


This sounds like a wonderful

This sounds like a wonderful thing to start doing with my family... The moments of memories like these are truly aspiring. Can you please tell me more about how it worked?

Since the tropic of cancer

Since the tropic of cancer marks the northward limit of the sun, and I live north of that line, how can the sun shine on the north wall of my house in the morning and afternoon in the summer?

At the summer solstice, the

At the summer solstice, the Sun is overhead at the Tropic of Cancer, which means that there will be no shadow at that location at that point in time. This is the farthest north the Sun will be overhead. (At any point north of this line, except at the pole where it is totally dark in winter, you will always have some shadow.)

Except for Hawaii, all states in the United States, as well as all of Canada, are north of the Tropic of Cancer. In summer, the Sun will rise in the northeast and set in the northwest. However, the arc the Sun travels in the sky during the day is tilted toward the south, and in summer part of that arc crosses the east-west line to hover in the south. So, from sunrise to sunset in the summer, the Sun will be located in the sky in these approximate directions relative to your position:

Northeast (sunrise)
East (when the Sun crosses the East-West line)
South (at local noon, Sun is highest overhead for the day)
West (when the Sun again crosses the East-West line)
Northwest (sunset)

So, as I understand it, for a northern wall of a house with no obstructions, you'll need the Sun to be in a northerly direction. In the continental US and Canada, this happens in summer in the early morning (about northeast) and late afternoon (about northwest).

Although I totally agree that

Although I totally agree that June 20th etc is actually mid -summer,and Dec 21st is actually the middle of winter, I also take note that statistically the highest and lowest average temperatures usually occur Aug 1st-6th, and coldest, Feb 1 thru Feb 5th. This is due to the earth needing time to heat up, or cool down. Like a pot of water on a fire, once it heats up, and the heat is removed, the water takes a while to cool off. Thus Gregour and Pup above in their comments are quite correct. Look at the average tempatures and you will see that they are the highest in the first week of August, and lowest the first week of February. This is because the Earth needed time to heat/cool and the waining less direct sun has little effect until the heat or coolness it retained starts to wear off. As such the June 21st/ Dec 21st dates are not to far off LOGICALLY since the maximum effect is reached 6 weeks later.

I'm mad!!! Since when is the

I'm mad!!! Since when is the first day of Summer on June 20??? My birthday ( and my daughter's) is on June 21 and THAT is the first day of Summer! Has been forever. Summer used to slide in about 1AM on June 21...we are bummed When did this abomination happen? Is this "global warming"? Does anyone have an answer?

It's not exactly the same

It's not exactly the same time every year. If the year has a leap day (Feb 29), the summer soltace will occur on June 21. The year prior to leap year, the summer soltace will happen on June 20. Also, it varies depending on your time zone.

The first day of summer (or

The first day of summer (or any of the seasons for that matter) are not calendar events, they are astronomical events. Summer starts when the Sun reaches its furthest point north of the equator (the Tropic of Cancer). This year that is at 1:04am EDT on June 21. However, if you live in Mountain Time (like I do) it will be at 11:04pm on June 20. It has nothing at all to do with "global warming."

It's different every year and

It's different every year and not just for the summer solstice.

All the comments,

All the comments, meteorological, astronomical, and historical are science combined with tradition. It is the first OFFICIAL day of summer! Celebrate!!

Anyone familiar with the

Anyone familiar with the ancient Chinese calendar. I always remembered that spring began when the sap starts running, around the first of Feb. (Groundhog's to the west), spring beginning when the life energy begins to "rise" again out of the earth pushing sap and growth. You can actually "feel" the life energy in the air around that time. And likewise all the other seasons where earlier due to this theory. To me it is a very "energetic" based calendar, I like that becasue thats all everything is - energy (Enstein).

A little insight into the

A little insight into the Druid outlook...
Summer Solstice “Litha”
Litha, Mid-summer. The summer solstice. June 21st. (This year on the 20th. Actually)
A time of great magical power. This holiday is also known as Mid-Summer festival.
The Cauldron is the main focal point in this celebration; it is ringed with fresh flowers and filled with spring water. This celebration is also a time for rededicating or initiations to the craft. A major symbolic gesture in ritual a sword is plunged into the cauldron, that sword would be used to anoint new members into the craft or to honor advancement in the craft.
Bonfire leaping is done to celebrate the renewal of the season and what this season brings forth from the Earth. It is also said it gives you luck for the coming year.
The first fresh herbs are hung around the fire to be blessed and cleansed from the smoke. After the herbs have been cleansed they are placed on the altar for blessings. Mugwort is one of the leading old school herbs and if you can find some really makes the ritual sing.
Mirrors are placed around the fire or altar to reflect the sun or candle light.
The traditional colors for altar and such are white, orange, and red.
Traditionally this celebration was started at high noon and would continue into the wee hours of morn. Modern Wiccans try to at least have a feast and celebration during mid day when the sun god is highest in the sky. The green Man is honored during the celebration as well and his renewed energies and the preparations for fall harvest are planned.

Thank you for posting your

Thank you for posting your comment. I appreciate learning more about the older traditions. They just resonate for me.

Thanks for a little herbal

Thanks for a little herbal older tradition info shared here ...amongst the disputers of who know what for sure vs. giving the gift of what their traditions teach. good comment.

Living in Alaska we get 22

Living in Alaska we get 22 hrs of sun on the solstice. Nothing like bbqing outside after midnight with full sun! The sad part is after the solstice, we start losing daylight. In the winter we get 5 hrs and that's not much!

Jesus was born in "April" or

Jesus was born in "April" or the first full moon after the spring solstice. An old Jewish guy told me that. But if you read the Bible, he really was born in the spring because it coincided with tax collecting and shepherds in the fields.

I hit the wrong reply button.

I hit the wrong reply button. The comment above should be one main comment down. Please excuse me.

Why were shepherds in the

Why were shepherds in the fields overnite at the time? Lambing season.

They would have no reason to be out in the fields overnite in December, which even in Palestine can be pretty cold especially at night.