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Growing Cabbage: Planting, Growing, and Harvesting Cabbages | The Old Farmer's Almanac

How to Grow Cabbage: The Complete Guide

Head of green cabbage in organic home farm vegetable food
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St-Design/Getty Images
Botanical Name
Brassica oleracea (Capitata group)
Plant Type
Sun Exposure
Soil pH

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Planting, Growing, and Harvesting Cabbage

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Cabbage is a cool-season vegetable suited to both spring and fall planting. See our Cabbage Growing Guide with instructions on how to plant, grow, and harvest this hardy, leafy vegetable packed with vitamins!

For some gardeners, a vegetable plot isn’t complete without that ever-dependable staple: cabbage! You can plant in mid-spring, late spring, or late summer (to harvest the following year). We will show you everything you need to know to grow the perfect cabbage, from sowing to transplanting to harvesting—and everything in between!

Shredded into a slaw, stir-fried, steamed, or baked, there’s not much you can’t do with cabbage. And with a little planning, it’s even possible to enjoy cabbages year-round by planting a carefully curated succession of varieties suited to each season. So here’s how to do it!

About Cabbage

Mark Twain once said, “Cauliflower is nothing but cabbage with a college education.” Cabbage is no longer viewed so poorly. We now know this hardy vegetable is antioxidant- and nutrient-rich and a great addition to any garden! See five reasons to eat cabbage.

That said, note that cabbage can be challenging for beginner gardeners to grow if you don’t have the right conditions; it only likes cool temperatures and can be a magnet for some types of garden pests. Rotating the cabbage crop every few years avoids the buildup of soilborne diseases.

Follow our guide to plant a successful crop in the spring or fall—and we’ll help you provide the diligent care that cabbage needs and set you up for success!

Planting

Choose a planting site that gets full sun (6 to 8 hours of direct sunlight per day) in order to get the best results.

Cabbage is a heavy feeder; it quickly depletes the soil of nutrients and needs a steady supply of water and nutrients throughout its growth. Prepare the soil in advance by mixing in aged manure and/or compost. Soil should also be well-draining: roots that stand in water cause heads to split or rot. 

When to Plant Cabbage

  • For a summer harvest, start seeds indoors, sowing about 6 to 8 weeks before the last spring frost. Consult our Planting Calendar for suggested dates.
  • For a fall harvest, direct sow seeds outdoors (or plant transplants) in mid-to late summer. If your area is particularly hot and dry, hold off on planting until late summer. Make sure that the young plants don’t dry out in the summer sun’s heat!

How to Plant Cabbage

  • Sow cabbage seeds ¼ inch deep.
  • Before planting the seedlings outdoors, harden off the plants over the course of a week.
  • Transplant seedlings outdoors on a cloudy afternoon 2 to 3 weeks before the last spring frost date.
  • Plant seedlings 12 to 24 inches apart in rows, depending on the size of the head desired. (Closer spacing yields smaller heads.)

Check out this video to learn how to plant cabbages: 

Growing
  • When seedlings reach about 5 inches tall, thin to leave the desired space between them. If you wish, transplant the thinned seedlings elsewhere.
  • Mulch thickly around the area to retain moisture and regulate soil temperature.
  • Water 2 inches per square foot per week.
  • The optimum soil temperature for growth is 60 to 65°F. Young plants exposed to temperatures below 45°F for a period of time may bolt or form loose heads. Cover plants if cold weather is expected.
  • Fertilize two weeks after transplanting with a balanced (10-10-10) fertilizer.
  • Three weeks later, add a nitrogen-rich fertilizer; cabbage needs nitrogen in the early stages.
  • Practice crop rotation with cabbages to avoid a buildup of soil-borne diseases.

Cabbage patch in the garden mulched with straw

Protect seedlings against pigeons with wire mesh, and use netting during the summer months to stop butterflies from laying their eggs on the leaves. It’s also worth growing nasturtiums nearby as a sacrificial crop for cabbageworms, which will be more likely to eat the nasturtiums instead of your cabbages. Mint can be used to help deter flea beetles. 

Keep cabbages watered, and weed between plants with a hoe or by hand. During exceptionally cold weather, winter cabbages may need to be protected with row covers or cloches. In very cold regions, growing cabbages in a greenhouse or cold frame will keep them safe.

Harvesting
  • Harvest when heads reach the desired size and are firm. Mature heads left on the stem may split. Days to maturity is around 70 days for most green cabbage varieties, and most produce 1- to 3-pound heads.
  • To harvest, cut each cabbage head at its base with a sharp knife. Remove any yellow leaves (retain loose green leaves; they provide protection in storage) and immediately bring the head indoors or place it in the shade. Alternatively, pull up the plant (roots and all) and hang it in a moist cellar that reaches near-freezing temperatures.
  • Winter cabbages are sweeter after a light frost. Spring cabbages can be harvested young and loose as spring greens, or left to grow on to form a tight head of leaves. 
  • To get two crops, cut the cabbage head out of the plant, leaving the outer leaves and roots in the garden. The plant will send up new heads; pinch off those until only four or so smaller heads remain. Harvest when tennis ball-size (perfect for salads!).
  • After harvesting, remove the entire stem and root system from the soil to prevent disease. Only compost healthy plants; destroy any with maggot infestation.

How to Store Cabbages

  • Cabbage can be stored in the refrigerator for up to two weeks, wrapped lightly in plastic. Make sure it is dry before storing. In proper root cellar conditions, cabbage will keep for up to 3 months. See our article on root cellars.
  • Follow this old-time technique to get the most out of your cabbage crop:
    1. In the fall, harvest the entire cabbage plant—stems, head, and roots—enjoying the head as usual and storing the roots in a root cellar through winter. 
    2. As soon as the ground has thawed in spring, plant the roots outdoors. 
    3. Soon, fresh sprouts will form, which can be eaten alone or added to soups, salads, or a dish of your choice.
    4. These replanted cabbages won’t produce full heads, but they should go to seed by the end of summer, providing next year’s round of cabbage seeds!
    • Note: This can also be done indoors on a windowsill in mid-to late winter; keep roots damp and sprouts should form.
Gardening Products
Wit and Wisdom
  • Traditionally, cabbage seeds were planted on St. Patrick’s Day in northern zones. Old-time farmers believed that to make them grow well you needed to plant them while wearing your nightclothes!
  • Plant near beans and cucumbers, not near broccoli, cauliflower, strawberries, or tomatoes. Check out our chart of plant companions for an expanded list of friends and foes. 
  • A 127-pound cabbage won first prize at the Alaska State Fair in 2009.

Cabbage: A familiar kitchen-garden vegetable about as large and wise as a man’s head.
—Abrose Bierce (1842–c.1914)

Pests/Diseases

Some old folklore tells us: Scatter elder leaves over your cabbage to keep the bugs away.

Cabbage Pests and Diseases
Pest/DiseaseTypeSymptomsControl/Prevention
AphidsInsectMisshapen/yellow leaves; sticky “honeydew” (excrement); sooty, black moldGrow companion plants; knock off with water spray; apply insecticidal soap; put banana or orange peels around plants; wipe leaves with a 1 to 2 percent solution of dish soap (no additives) and water every 2 to 3 days for 2 weeks; add native plants to invite beneficial insects
Black rotFungusYellow, V-shape areas on leaf edges that brown and progress toward leaf center; leaves eventually collapse; stem cross sections reveal blackened veinsDestroy infected plants; choose resistant varieties; provide good drainage; remove plant debris; rotate crops
Cabbage loopersInsectLarge, ragged holes in leaves from larval feeding; defoliation; stunted or bored heads; excrementHandpick; add native plants to invite beneficial insects; spray larvae with insecticidal soap or Bt; use row covers; remove plant debris
Cabbage root maggotsInsectWilted/stunted plants; off-color leaves; larvae feeding on rootsUse collars around seedling stems; monitor adults with yellow sticky traps; use row covers; destroy crop residue; till soil in fall; rotate crops
CabbagewormsInsectLeaves have large, ragged holes or are skeletonized; heads bored; dark green excrement; yellowish eggs laid singly on leaf undersidesHandpick; use row covers; add native plants to invite beneficial insects; grow companion plants (especially thyme); spray Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
ClubrootFungusWilted/stunted plants; yellow leaves; roots appear swollen/distortedDestroy infected plants; solarize soil; maintain soil pH of around 7.2; disinfect tools; rotate crops
Downy mildewFungusYellow, angular spots on upper leaf surfaces that turn brown; white/purple/gray cottony growth on leaf undersides only; distorted leaves; defoliationRemove plant debris; choose resistant varieties; ensure good air circulation; avoid overhead watering
Flea beetlesInsectNumerous tiny holes in leavesUse row covers; mulch heavily; add native plants to invite beneficial insects
Slugs/snailsMolluskIrregular holes in leaves; slimy secretion on plants/soil; seedlings “disappear”Handpick; avoid thick bark mulch; use copper plant collars; avoid overhead watering; lay boards on soil in evening, and in morning dispose of “hiding” pests in hot, soapy water; drown in deep container filled with 1/2 inch of beer, or sugar water and yeast, and sunk so that top edge is slightly above ground; apply 1-inch-wide strip of food-grade diatomaceous earth as barrier
StinkbugsInsectYellow/white blotches on leaves; eggs, often keg-shape, in clusters on leaf undersidesDestroy crop residue; handpick (bugs emit odor, wear gloves); destroy eggs; spray nymphs with insecticidal soap; use row covers; weed; till soil in fall
ThripsInsectLeaves, especially in folds near base, have white patches or silver streaks; brown leaf tips; blistering/bronzing on cabbage leaves; curling or scarringRemove plant debris; choose resistant varieties; add native plants to invite beneficial insects; use row covers; use straw mulch; monitor adults with yellow or white sticky traps; use sprinklers or other overhead watering
White moldFungusPale gray, “water-soaked” areas on stems, leaves, and other plant parts that enlarge and develop white, cottony growth, later with black particles; bleached areas; crowns rot; plants wilt/collapseDestroy infected plants; ensure good air circulation; water in morning; weed; destroy crop residue; rotating crops on 5-year or longer cycle may help
Cabbageworm damage on a cabbage plant in a garden
Cabbageworm damage
Cooking Notes

If boiling cabbage, drop walnuts (shell on) into the water; they will absorb the cabbage’s unpleasant odor.

About The Author

Catherine Boeckmann

Catherine Boeckmann loves nature, stargazing, and gardening so it’s not surprising that she and The Old Farmer’s Almanac found each other. She leads digital content for the Almanac website, and is also a certified master gardener in the state of Indiana. Read More from Catherine Boeckmann

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