How to Plant, Grow, and Care for Peony Flowers

Magenta Peony


Rate this Article: 

Average: 3.9 (756 votes)

The peony is outrageously beautiful in bloom in springtime—with lush foliage all summer long. Here’s how to grow peonies and get the best peony flowers in your garden.

Peony flowers are perennials that come back every spring to take your breath away. The plants may live longer than you do—some have been known to thrive for 100 years.

Peony plants require little maintenance as long as they are planted properly and establish themselves; they do not respond well to transplanting. 

They’re hardy to Zone 3 and grow well as far south as Zones 7 and 8. In most of the country, the rules for success are simply full sun and well-drained soil. Peonies even relish cold winters, because they need chilling for bud formation.

Peonies make fine sentinels lining walkways and a lovely low hedge. After its stunning bloom, the peony’s bushy clump of handsome glossy green leaves lasts all summer, and then turns purplish or gold in the fall, as stately and dignified as any shrub.

In mixed borders, peonies bloom with columbines, baptisias, and veronicas, and combine well with irises and roses. Plant white peonies with yellow irises and a froth of forget-me-nots; set off pink peonies with blue Nepeta or violets.


When to Plant Peonies

  • Plant peonies in the fall: in late September and October in most of the country, and even later in the South. (If you must move an established plant, this is the time.)
  • Peonies should be settled into place before the first hard frost. Spring-planted peonies just don’t do as well, experts agree; they generally lag about a year behind those planted in the fall.

How to Plant Peonies

  • Grow peonies in deep, fertile, humus-rich, moist soil that drains well. Soil pH should be neutral.
  • The soil will benefit from the addition of organic material in the planting hole. If the soil is heavy or very sandy, enrich it with compost. Incorporate about 1 cup of bonemeal into the soil. Tamp soil firmly. Learn more about soil amendments and preparing soil for planting.
  • Peonies are not fussy, but choose your location wisely, as they resent disturbance. Provide shelter from strong winds. Plant away from trees or shrubs as peonies don’t like to compete for food and moisture. Space them three to four feet apart for good air circulation.
  • Peonies like full sun, and though they can manage with half a day, they bloom best in a sunny spot.
  • Peonies are usually sold as bare-root tubers with three to five eyes, divisions of a three- or four-year-old plant.
  • Dig a generous-sized hole, about two feet deep and two feet across in well-drained soil in a sunny spot. If the soil is heavy or very sandy, enrich it with compost. Incorporate about one cup of bonemeal into the soil. Tamp it firmly.
  • Set the root so the eyes face upward on top of the firmed soil, placing the root just 2 inches below the soil surface. (In southern states, choose early-blooming varieties, plant them about an inch deep, and provide some shade.) 
  • Don’t plant too deep! In most of the country, the peony’s eyes (buds) should be no deeper than 1-½ to 2 inches below the soil line.
  • Then, backfill the hole, taking care that the soil doesn’t settle and bury the root deeper than 2 inches.
  • Water thoroughly.


Like children, young peonies take time to develop. They usually need a few years to establish themselves, bloom, and grow.

Peonies thrive on benign neglect. Unlike most perennials, they don’t need to be dug and divided.

  • Spare the fertilizer. Work the soil well before you plant, mixing in a little fertilizer, and that should be enough.
  • If your soil is poor, the time to apply fertilizer (bonemeal, compost, or well-rotted manure) is early summer, after the peonies have bloomed and you have deadheaded. Don’t fertilize more than every few years.
  • Help the stems. If peonies have any structural weakness, it is their stems, which are sometimes not strong enough to support their gigantic blossoms. Consider three-legged metal peony rings that allow the plant to grow through the center of the rings.
  • Deadhead peony blossoms as soon as they begin to fade, cutting to a strong leaf so that the stem doesn’t stick out of the foliage. Cut the foliage to the ground in the fall to avoid any overwintering disease.
  • Don’t smother peonies with mulch. Where cold temperatures are severe, for the first winter after planting you can mulch VERY loosely with pine needles or shredded bark. Remove mulch in the spring.


Peonies are generally very hardy. They are susceptible to Verticillium wilt, ringspot virus, tip blight, stem rot, Botrytis blight, leaf blotch, Japanese beetle, and nematodes.

Many gardeners wonder why so many ants crawl on the peony buds. They are eating nectar in exchange for attacking bud-eating pests. Never spray the ants; they’re helping you nurture peonies to bloom!

Luckily, peonies are also one of many deer-resistant plants you can grow in your garden.


Peonies make wonderful cut flowers, lasting more than a week. For best results, cut long stems when the buds are still fairly tight.

Recommended Varieties

Wit & Wisdom

Had I but four square feet of ground at my disposal, I would plant a peony in the corner and proceed to worship. –Alice Harding, The Book of the Peony

The fattest and most scrumptious of all flowers, a rare fusion of fluff and majesty, the peony is now coming into bloom.
–Henry Mitchell, American writer (1923-93)

Peonies are said to symbolize a happy life and a happy marriage. See more flower meanings here.

Reader Comments

Leave a Comment

I have healthy peonies in

I have healthy peonies in several locations and they have been glorious for more than 20 years. This spring is all about rain and cold weather over and over, and my peonies have not grown at all, the leaves and miserable buds are shriveled up, and puckered, they look like they have bugs, but there are no visible bugs. Help!

Gray mold or botrytis blight

Gray mold or botrytis blight is a common disease of garden peonies during rainy seasons. The leaves get brown spots and the buds dry up. Fungicides including copper or sulfur can be used. Check with your garden center.

Our peonies are seemingly

Our peonies are seemingly doing very well. My problem is that from one stem we often have 3 or 4 smaller buds branching off about 6" from the crowning bud. They do not all come into flower at the same time, but the weight of the crowning flower does pull it over. I do not remember from years past, whether these buds ultimately opened. I would think it would be better to remove these extra buds to give all the nourishment to the main bud. Will it harm the plant to cut the extra buds at the leaf joint? Or is there a better way to deal with it?

The side buds, if left on the

The side buds, if left on the stem, will eventually flower and extend the bloom time of the peony. Removing all but the terminal bud of each stem will increase the size of the remaining flower. Do this when the buds are still small.

I searched high and low for

I searched high and low for peony plants(love peonies)... Went to lowes one day and there they were (Shirley Temple), the plants were blooming and had buds on them. I brought them home and planted them into large pots, part sun, watered regularly... the existing blooms quickly died as well as the buds. Its been over two months now leaves are green but no signs of blooms to come. What should I do???

Peonies like full sun, rich

Peonies like full sun, rich soil and good drainage. The plants may have suffered transplant shock. If the foliage is fine the plants will be OK. In the fall plant the peonies in a permanent location for blooms next spring. Read our planting tips above.

Okay,thank you so much. Will

Okay,thank you so much. Will move them to an area with full sun and be patient.

We bought a home last year in

We bought a home last year in July and replaced some of the shrubs the previous owner had not knowing what every bush of leaves were we decided to leave this perticular one to see what would bloom this year.. I started to notice the buds forming I've never seen a peony bush before at first I was startled by what it was but could not believe how beautifully they bloom the peony is such a beautiful flower and I have always loved it I am so happy I have a bush growing in my front garden .. My question is can I cut a few stems to place indoor without causing any harm? I've notice that the already blossomed peony are being weighed down dropping down the ground what can I do

Peonies are lovely in a vase.

Peonies are lovely in a vase. It will not hurt the bush to cut some stems and this way you will be able to enjoy these beautiful blooms outside and also inside. It's a good idea to support the peony with stakes and string or a wire cage.

Please don't blast me for

Please don't blast me for this "problem". My peonies are about 5 years old and are outgrowing their bed. Not just width but height also. Consecutive-year pictures show that they are getting progressivly bigger and I'm out of room. Will dividing them stunt them a little height-wise? Or would cutting them back slow them down? Sorry, this really is an issue. They have taken over an entire bed that also is for annuals. Thanks!

You can divide the peonies in

You can divide the peonies in the fall and move them to a new location. It is also good to cut off the foliage in the fall after the leaves have started to turn brown. Cut the stems 3 to 4 inches above ground.

Does the crown looking tips

Does the crown looking tips of the Peonies have seeds in then? Or is this the inside of the flowers.

These are the seed pods and

These are the seed pods and they do have seeds in them. When dry they can be collected and planted. It normally takes 5 to 7 years to grow a flowering peony plant from seed.

I'm just beginning to adorn

I'm just beginning to adorn my rented yard with foliage. I'd love to put some peonies along my garage facing south with full sun, but I'm not sure the dirt is good for growing. I usually dump ashes there from the fire pit.
How do I begin from a cutting? Cut just above the leaves? Then what?
I'm in northern Illinois near the Wisconsin border. Thank you so much!

My peonies are in a

My peonies are in a container, Huge buds that are not opening, why? Thanks

If the buds look healthy they

If the buds look healthy they should open when the time is right. You can cut a bud and bring it indoors to see if it will open quicker.

My one peonie has been in a

My one peonie has been in a full sun bed by our deck, planted around 8 years ago. In the past it has had several blooms each summer. Last year it only had one and this year there are no buds. Where we lived before the soil was somewhat different but I had lots of flowers each year. What am I doing wrong and what can I do to have flowers???? I would appreciate whatever advise you can give. All my other annual flowers, shasta daisies, bushes do well.

Add some compost and bonemeal

Add some compost and bonemeal to the soil if you haven't already. The soil around the peony may also have settled and buried the root too deep. The root should not be deeper than 2 inches below the surface. You can carefully lift the plant with a spade and add some soil and compost under the root ball to lift it up.

Someone stated earlier that

Someone stated earlier that they purchased bulbs during a spring sale. You recommended waiting until fall to plant. I must have been at the same sale! I live in Denver; is there any special care required to preserve the bulbs from now, May, until I can plant then in the fall?

Don't bother with storing the

Don't bother with storing the bulbs. Plant them now. You can plant them in pots and transplant them in the fall or you can plant them in their permanent location. They will not bloom this year. Good luck.

We have waited patiently

We have waited patiently (about 5 years) for our yellow peony to bloom. How do I share a picture of it?

At the end of the blooming

At the end of the blooming season the leaves on my peony plant look like they have a white residue on them. What is this and how can I get rid of it?

It's probably mildew from

It's probably mildew from humid conditions. It isn't pretty but it won't hurt the peony this late in the year. Cut it back and dispose of the leaves. Make sure your peony has good air circulation next year.

About 10 years ago, my wife

About 10 years ago, my wife transplanted a plant from her grandmothers house. In 10 years, we only get 1 flower per year and it hasn't gotten any bigger. Is there a way to grow starts or increase the size of this 1 plant?

The two most common reason

The two most common reason for lack of blooms: 1. Planting at the wrong depth. The buds should only be 1 to 2 inches below the surface of the soil. 2. Too much shade. The peony needs lots of sun (4 to 6 hours a day). Exhausted weak soil is another reason. Excess nitrogen fertilizer is another. Hope this helps!

Hi, can it be grown in the

Hi, can it be grown in the late spring/early summer? I just bought the "on-sale" peonies from Lowes (May). Should I store it for the fall to plan it?

The best time to plant

The best time to plant peonies is early fall. This gives the plant time to establish roots before the winter. You can also plant in spring though it may not bloom as well for the first year or two.

making roots

Can you make roots from the stem of a peony?

Peonies are best propagated

Peonies are best propagated by root divisions. Seeds can also be used but it will take many years before the peony will bloom.

What about the pods that are left after the blooms fall off

Can these be planted? If so what is the process. Thanks

I can't kill my peonies....

My mother had peonies when I was a child (I know they are at least 50 years old since that is when the original gardens were put in.) When my parents died, I moved to their house. To make a long story short, we tore it down and rebuilt on the same land, but in doing so, we needed to move the peonies. In the last 4 years, the original peonies were moved multiple times at all times during spring, summer and fall and all more than successfully. I now 10x the amount of plants. Some of these moves were not kind due to timing or my exhaustion (we moved 100s of other plants too.) In one case, a bulldozer plowed down one of my gardens where they said they were not going to dig. I have one area in the lawn of my yard that keeps on sprouting peonies (since obviously the tuber/crown got broken up.) I keep on thinking I get it all out of the lawn by digging it out and transplanting the tuber, and then the next month/year, up comes some more. Some of the roots have been 2 feet under the ground as I followed the stem. So peonies, from another perspective, can be tougher than you think. It seems I can't kill these things and now I have them in every garden I have, not just a peony bed. Also, some of the roots now they are planted in bigger spaces, are HUGE compared to the original plants I moved.

Another observation. Just by coincidence, I planted my peonies by some hostas I was saving also. The hostas keep the peonies from flopping over even with rain...I don't have to use those ring stakes that drive me crazy in that bed. I have old fashioned peonies, mostly doubles in white, pink and white, dark pink, and a light pink. The dark pinks are the only ones I don't have lots of multiples, but it may have just been which ones had to be moved more times than others. Just my experience.

Thanks for sharing your

Thanks for sharing your story! Great tip about planting hostas and peonies together.

Congratulations on being

Congratulations on being surrounded by peonies' fragrance. I also plant shrubs with ground covers and find it nice that your hostas support the flowering peonies. As hostas don't thrive in full sun and peonies prefer full sun, I expect you've obtained a perfect partial shade condition for both. I'll try this on the north side of my house where the northern position of the sun keeps it from getting too shady.

Our neighbor has cut down our

Our neighbor has cut down our peonies for the last 2 years...last year we got beautiful flowers...this year they didn't get a chance to bloom. These peonies are VERY WELL established...this is an older house...we would like to move them away from her driveway area...but are unsure if it would kill them. We live in the Tualatin Valley area of Oregon....Hillsboro.

Can you put up a small fence

Can you put up a small fence around your peonies to protect them? If not, you can transplant the peonies in the fall. Follow the planting suggestions above and make sure that the new spot is in a sunny area.

curling leaves

I split my peony in half this spring and both are growing well, look healthy and have lots of buds, but the leaves are curling toward the center. What should I do? Thanks

It may take the new plants

It may take the new plants some time to adjust to the new location. A sudden change in weather can also cause the leaf curl. Make sure they are in full sun and give the plants some extra water and fertilizer (if you haven't yet). Good luck!

black buds

I just bought a new peony from a local nursery and noticed it has black buds. The rest of the plant looks healthy. What is the problem if any?

The buds have dried up.

The buds have dried up. Sometimes when peonies sit in a container too long they start to suffer. You may not get any blooms this year but your plant should be OK if you planted it in a good spot in your garden.

pulled up great grandmas pionies

My son surprised me and started cleaning up the garden beds as I have been working 50 hours a week. He dug up all of my heirloom peonies and I do not know if I can save them. They had budded but not bloomed and I need advice please? Thank you

Plant them as soon as

Plant them as soon as possible. Hopefully they'll still have enough roots to survive.

stunted peony tree / bush

We have a small peony tree / bush which produces small sparse flowers which never open. I've always had a green thumb with indoor plants, but am lost as far as how to make my outdoor flowering plants thrive (roses too!). any help is appreciated, thanks!

Peony - moving

I have huge old peony I must move. Physically I can manage moving four pieces, with a struggle so I have decided to prepare four large fertilized holes and make the move quickly as soon as water has drained out. Then plant them and fertilize them. I will water the plants and cover them for a few days to retain moisture if it is hot and sunny, wish me luck. 27th April 13.

Already established plants

Planted our Peonies last fall, All have sprouted up nicely, We're in the process of beautifying the surrounding gardens. Is it ok to use landscapers cloth around the plants and bark. Would like all the gardens
to match but am worried about disturbing them very much and i don't want the bark to cause problems with the plants.

Oops...I accidentally cut my shoots

I was weed wacking near my spring shoots of peonies and accidentally cut some shoots off. Will this kill the plant or just stunt them for this season? I hope I have not killed it because it is my only pink plant. :-( Please help!!! I live in lower Michigan and the weather is beginning to change to spring. (Finally)

very old plants

I have some very old established peonies that i was lucky enough to inherit when we purchased our 95 year old house. The neighbor who grew up next door thinks they are at least 60 years old. They are still blooming beautifully but I have noticed the roots are lifting up out of the beds - the roots are black in appearance - should I re-cover with soil? I have 4 large clumps that produce litterally hundreds of flowers every year and I love them!

Cover the roots with soil

Cover the roots with soil mixed with compost. In the fall you may want to dig up the plant and replant it a few inches lower in the soil. Add some compost to the hole before replanting.

If you are going to re-plant

If you are going to re-plant it this fall. May I send you Fed/ex label if you would not mind sending me some roots.
Please let me know at Thank you!

How many blooms?

My plants have two blooms. After I cut off the dead heads, will I get more blooms on the plants until summer?

I don't think so. Peonies are

I don't think so. Peonies are a one-time flowers a year.

New growth, cold temps

We have had some warm weather and my peonies have new growth from 6' to 18" depending on the plant. We are suppose to have 33 degree temps for the next couple of nights. Do I need to cover the new growth to protect them from possible frost or can the new growth tolerate these temps?

peonies and cold snaps

Whether you need to cover your plants or not depends on several factors, such as plant health, location, etc. If the temperatures remain above freezing, it should probably not be a problem, especially if the actual flower buds are not forming yet. However, if you want to play it safe, some gardeners do cover their plants with a row cover, plastic pots, plastic garbage cans, or similar to help with brief cold snaps in spring (do not use clear plastic). With light cold snaps in spring, young leaves may show some cold damage, but they usually recover. If the cold snap is more severe, then the plant may suffer. Tree peonies are more sensitive to cold than herbaceous types. Those plants that have significant new growth may show more damage than plants just emerging.

Separating peonies

My peonies seem to be spreading in the ground in my flower bed. I am curious if they need to be separated at some point. They are planted far enough apart but I notice each year they grow up & bloom further out than the yer before. Not sure if I'm explaining this well enough. Thanks.

If your peonies are spaced

If your peonies are spaced correctly, they don't usually need to be divided for 10 to 15 years. You'll know if they are crowded because they won't bloom well. But if the clump becomes crowded, division of the clump is recommended. You'll have to dig up the plant and separate the tubers.

If the peony are in the bush

If the peony are in the bush form, you can easily cut the the peony clumps into two. In a sense, you have another clump to plant and spread the peony bush into two bushes. If you have a peony tree, don't separate the tree.

peony health

I planted my peonies last fall and they really started growing fast. Went thru the winter well and now a couple are turning purple and one looks wilted. Should I cut them back or leave them alone? I'm in 77856.

Water the peonies and wait to

Water the peonies and wait to see if they will perk up. Peonies need a cold period in the winter and usually die back and go dormant before new growth starts in the spring.


Can you grow them in containers?

Late March Care

I live in Oklahoma and moved into a new house last May. When I got here the flower bed was full of beautiful Peony. This year I've been concerned about what I need to do to get this kind of result again, it is my first time caring for Peony. It is now late March and I noticed when I cleaning out the beds that there are little pink tips poking out of the ground in several spots. I uncovered them of leaves and other debris, should I have? I just don't want to uncover them too early and for them to get too cold or something. Is there anything else I need to do at this point? It's hard for me to believe that these little pink tips will grow into those big beautiful blooming plants that were there last year within a couple of months. Just wondering if this sounds like a normal stage for them to be in at this point in the year. We've had a fairly cold Spring so far. Thanks!

It's normal for peonies to

It's normal for peonies to show some growth in early spring. Spread some organic, all-purpose fertilizer around your plants or top-dress with compost for continued blooms.

Digging up peonies

I am moving from my home and decided I would try to dig up my peonies to take with me. I live in Connecticut. I dug them up, and now wonder how I should store them until I move in a month. Should I just put them in a pot with potting soil or store them loose in a paperbag with peat moss? I know I am taking a chance that they may die.

Store the bulbs in a

Store the bulbs in a container of moist sawdust or sand in a cool dark location. Don't let the bulbs dry out.

Zone 8 California, planting times!

Hi, I bought some bare root Sarah bernhardts, that just recently came into my local store at the beginning of the month (its towards the end of March now!). I wanted to plant them early morning tomorrow, but is this a bad idea? Since they're supposed to be planted in fall! Why would a nursery sell bulbs after the planting season, and what do you suggest I do with them? Will they still be alive by this fall if I decide to plant them this year? Any advice on the best course of a tion would be wonderful! Thanks for your help, I'm still a novice gardener and I aspire towards a full garden of peonies!

Fall is the best time to

Fall is the best time to plant peonies but you can plant them now. Make sure to follow the advice above about planting.

cutting peonies in the sping

This is my first year in a house with peonies in the garden. I didn't know I was supposed to cut them to the ground in the fall. Now it's March. Should I cut now???


Typically, you would cut the peonies down to the ground after a frost. So do it now before the new growth starts for this year. Thanks for your interest in The Old Farmer's Almanac.

not blooming

We have had our peonies in for about 11 yrs. we only get 2-3 blooms on them every spring. There are 3 that never bloom. Is it true that there are male & female peonies and the male does not bloom?

they get lots of sunshine and plenty of water. Thanks for your help' We don't fertilize very often

Thanks for the helpful

Thanks for the helpful tips!
What should I do if I planted them too deep? They've been in the current location for 2 seasons.

You can try to very gently

You can try to very gently lift the tubers with a spade and fill the hole with soil and compost.

Conflicting info on planting time for Peonies

Hi, I just purchased 3 boxes(12 total bulbs) from Sams Club. They are Sarah Bernhardt and Karl rosenfeld, nursery supplier name Van Zyvenden. The instructions are clear and repetitive on the box that they should be planted in the spring after last frost, which is in mid April in my zone 6 (25801 Zip). However, not just the very reliable Almanac, but nearly all of the research I have done strongly suggests they should be planted in the fall. It says they are guaranteed to grow, although I would hate to know what is involved with executing that....was wondering if I should just try it in April, (if so, should i keep the bulbs in the refrigerator until then? its late feb now)or maybe store the bulbs until fall, or.. maybe try to start them now in some large pots and transplant them in the fall? Or should i just cut my losses and just return the unopened boxes for a refund now, and try again in the fall??? Thank you!

peony planting

Bare-root peonies are best planted in the fall because it allows some feeder roots to form, helping the plant to get a good start in spring. Planting bare-root peonies in spring will stress the plants more, and they will take longer to establish. You might try planting them in April, as directed, and pamper them as much as you can to help them get off to a good start. Keep in mind that peonies may take a year or two to start flowering; those that are stressed might take longer. Be sure to plant at the proper depth (so that the eyes are 1/2 to 2 inches deep, but no more)--too deep, and they will not flower. Container-grown peonies can be planted in spring with greater success than bare-root.

If you do want to store the peonies for a bit before planting, you can place them in a cool (around 40 to 45 F), dark, dry area, such as a root cellar. Be sure to keep them above freezing, but not so warm as to encourage sprouting.

Good luck!

Conflicting planting time.

I also bought the bulbs at SAMs Club and followed the directions and planted in the spring. I live in southeast Virginia. The first two years I was very upset they came up but no blooms. I worried I had planted them too deep. Last year they bloomed beautifully. Each plant had about 5 blooms each. I am so excited ....this year the buds are too numerous to count. I am looking forward to fresh cut flowers this Spring. My advise just be patient . Good luck!

My peony has never bloomed it's about 8 years old

My peony is around 8 years old it has never bloomed. I bought it as a bareroot plant and planted it in a shady area because I live in the Central Valley in California we get to 110 degrees in summer. I dug it up in the fall the first season. I planted the peony in a large pot and there it has remained.I have become curious to up-turn the pot to look at the roots. It's mid-January is it safe to examine the condition of my peony.

Success with peonies in

Success with peonies in containers will depend on how large your container is and what winter conditions are like (they need a freezing period).
Peonies have very large root systems and need good drainage. Peonies are also heavy feeders.
When you remove the roots from the pot shake off the soil to find the eyes (buds). If the roots seems to be crowded in the pot you may want to find a bigger container. When replanting the peony place the roots in the soil so that the eyes are 1 to 2 inches below the soil surface. If you plant them any deeper they will not bloom.


Botanical Name: 


Plant Type: 

Sun Exposure: 

Soil Type: 

Soil pH: 

Hardiness Zone: 

Flower Color: 

Bloom Time: 

Keep Your New Garden Growing

keepgardengrowingcover.jpgTop 10 Veggies.
Almanac Editors Tips- water, feed, pest control, harvest


You will also be subscribed to our Almanac Companion Newsletter


Solar Energy Production Today

0.00 kWh

Live data from the solar array at The Old Farmer's Almanac offices in Dublin, NH.