Combine the flour, sugar, baking powder, baking soda, and salt in a large bowl and whisk to blend. Add the butter and cut it into the dry ingredients with a pastry blender or rub it with your fingers, until the mixture resembles a coarse meal. Refrigerate for 10 minutes.
Preheat the oven to 400°F. Lightly butter a large baking sheet or line it with parchment paper.
Add 1 cup of the cheese to the flour mixture and toss lightly, to combine. Make a well and add the buttermilk. Using a large fork or wooden spoon, stir until the mixture forms dough that sticks together and pulls away from the side of the bowl. Let it rest for 1 minute.
Turn the dough out onto a lightly floured surface. Using floured hands, knead the dough two or three times. Pat or roll to be about 2⁄3 of an inch thick. Press a 11⁄4-inch (or similar) biscuit cutter into the dough. Place the rounds on the baking sheet, evenly spaced and close together. Gather, shape, and cut the scraps. Sprinkle with the remaining 1⁄2 cup of cheese. Bake for 15 minutes, or until golden brown and crusty. Serve. To reheat, wrap in aluminum foil and place in a warm oven for 10 minutes.