The Month of January 2024: Holidays, Fun Facts, Folklore

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Hello January, Fireworks
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Sam Jones/Vaughn Communications

Everything You Should Know About January

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What’s happening in January 2024? This month was named after the Roman god Janus, who fittingly represented new beginnings. Start the first month of the year right. Learn about some fun traditions, quirky holidays, night sky sights, cozy recipes, and more!

The Month of January

January was named for the Roman god Janus, known as the protector of gates and doorways, who symbolize beginnings and endings. Janus is depicted with two faces, one looking into the past, the other with the ability to see into the future. What a fitting symbol for this first day of the year; this month is our door into the new year. Read more about all 12 months’ names here.

The Romans often made promises to Janus and exchanged good wishes. Read more about the custom of making New Year resolutions—and see how they have changed over time to today!

Janus am I; oldest of potentates;
Forward I look, and backward, and below
I count, as god of avenues and gates,
The years that through my portals come and go.
–Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, American poet (1807–82)

Janus Bust
Credit: Telia/Shutterstock

History of January

The months of January and February were not originally in the ancient Roman calendar as the winter months were considered dormant, both in terms of agriculture and also in terms of making war. This was a time of peace. Until 450 BCE, the Roman calendar was 10 months, beginning in March (Martius), due to the March Equinox. Remember, March was named for “Mars,” the god of War who was also an agricultural guardian.

January Calendar

  • January 1 is New Year’s Day. While you’re still recuperating from the prior night’s parties, read about some other New Year’s traditions you might not know about and celebrate with some Hoppin’ John for good luck.
  • January 5 brings Twelfth Night, an English folk custom that marked the end of Christmas merrymaking and, in ancient Celtic tradition, the end of the 12-day winter solstice celebration. On Twelfth Night, it was customary for the assembled company to toast each other from the wassail bowl.
  • January 6 is Epiphany. According to the New Testament’s Gospels, on this date, the Magi—the three wise men or kings—venerated and brought gifts to the infant Jesus. Bake a beautiful Epiphany Tart or a King Cake with a lucky bean inside!
  • January 15 is Martin Luther King Jr. Day (observed). This holiday is held on the third Monday in January and honors the principles of this civil rights leader and Nobel Prize Winner dedicated to nonviolence.
  • January 17 is Benjamin Franklin’s birthday. He was not only a world-renowned statesman, inventor, and scientist but was also fascinated by agriculture. Here at the Old Farmer’s Almanac, we consider him the father of almanacs!

“Just for Fun” Days

January is National Clean Up Your Computer Month and National Hot Tea Month! Here are some more fun things to celebrate in January:

  • January 1: Z Day (On this day, those whose last name begins with “Z” get to go first instead of last.)
  • January 3: National Chocolate-Covered Cherry Day
  • January 6: National Bean Day
  • January 8: Elvis Presley’s Birthday
  • January 10: National Houseplant Appreciation Day
  • January 14: National Dress Up Your Pet Day
  • January 20: National Penguin Day
  • January 22: National Answer Your Cat’s Questions Day
  • January 29: National Puzzle Day

Forgotten Customs: Going Back to Work!

If you enjoy unusual, forgotten, or bygone customs, here are two that traditionally marked the end of the Christmas break when it was time to face the “daily grind.” Often, these were “joke” holidays that mixed up the first days back to hard work with some playfulness thrown in. 


January 7: Distaff Day

The day after Epiphany (January 6) was once called Distaff Day and marked when the women went back spinning after the 12-day Christmas celebration. A distaff is a wooden rod (staff) that holds flax or wool. Before the Spinning Wheel arrived, spinning was slowly and tediously done on a Drop Spindle. As is often the case, it’s hard to go back to work after the holidays and not much got done! The women’s husbands would mischievously try to set fire to the flax on their wives’ distaffs, while the women, lying in wait, would retaliate with humor by dousing them with buckets of water.

Partly worke and partly play
Ye must on S. Distaffs day:
From the Plough soone free your teame;
Then come home and fother them.
If the Maides a spinning goe,
Burne the flax, and fire the tow:
Scorch their plackets, but beware
That ye singe no maiden-haire.”
–Robert Herrick (17th-century English lyric poet and cleric)

In modern times, fiber artists will often hold a little Distaff Day celebration! Why not? It’s a day for Spinners!


January 8, 2024: Plough Monday 

Dating back to the fifteenth century, the first Monday after Epiphany (January 6) marked the start of the agricultural season, specifically for ploughing the fields for spring-sown crops. Of course, not much work was actually done on the first day! Dressed in clean white smocks decorated with ribbons, the men dragged a plow (plough) through the village and collected money for the “plow light” that was kept burning in the church all year. Often men from several farms joined together to pull the plow through all their villages. They sang and danced their way from village to village to the accompaniment of music. In the evening, each farmer provided a Plough Monday supper for his workers, with plentiful beef and ale for all.

In modern times, a folk revival has turned Plough Monday into some small communities. If you have a small farm or CSA, why not celebrate the start of spring sowing this way?

January Weather

January is here,
With eyes that keenly glow—
A frost-mailed warrior striding
A shadowy steed of snow.
–Edgar Fawcett, American poet (1847–1904)

In the Northern Hemisphere, January is the coldest month of the year in most regions. We’re expecting a chilly start to the New Year. See our forecast for this Winter!

Did You Know: According to folklore, the weather of the first 12 days of the year is said to be indicative of the following 12 months. See your long-range weather predictions for the year.

January Astronomy

Even in astronomy, there is a sense of new beginnings. In the Northern Hemisphere, the days are starting to get longer again, and we look forward to the light’s re-emergence.

Perihelion: Earth Passes Its Closest to the Sun

On January 2, 2024, Earth reaches perihelion, which is the point in the planet’s orbit where it is closest to the Sun. At perihelion, Earth will be 91,403,034 miles from our bright star. Don’t forget your sunscreen! Read more about perihelion (and aphelion) here.

The Full Wolf Moon

January’s Moon is called the Wolf Moon. The Saxon word for the month was Wulf-monath or “wolf month.”

This year, the full Moon reaches peak illumination on Thursday, January 25, at 12:54 P.M. EST. It can be seen rising from the horizon around sunset that evening.

See the January Wolf Moon article to learn more!


The Quadrantid Meteor Shower

The Quadrantid meteors appear in the early January sky, producing up to 25 meteors per hour at their peak. They’ll be at their best on the night of January 3 into January 4. For the best chance at spotting them, venture out between midnight and dawn (if you can stand the cold). See our Meteor Shower Calendar to learn more about the year’s meteor showers.

Gardening: Start Planning!

For much of the country, January is the best time to start planning your garden for the upcoming season. If you want to learn how to grow the best veggies this year, read our Vegetable Gardening for Beginners Guide.

Then, start dreaming and designing with the Old Farmer’s Almanac Garden Planner! Now offering a free 7-day trial!


Recipes for the Season

In the month of January, stay warm and cozy with soups, stews, and chowders.

Here are a few of our personal favorites:

Potato and Kale Soup. Photo by Gaus Alex/Shutterstock.
Potato and Kale Soup. 
Photo by Gaus Alex/Shutterstock.

It’s also a great time to break out the pancake recipes for a warm, hearty breakfast. Here’s a collection of our favorite pancake recipes!

Everyday Advice

January Birthstone

January’s birthstone, the garnet, is thought to keep the wearer safe during travel. Learn more about January’s birthstone.


January Birth Flower

January’s birth flowers are the carnation and snowdrop. Read more about January’s birth flowers!

Snowdrop flowers

The Zodiac

January’s Zodiac signs are: 

Weather Folklore for January

  • Fog in January brings a wet spring.
  • A favorable January brings us a good year.
  • If grass grows in January, it will grow badly the whole year.
  • A summerish January, 
    a winterish spring. 

Have a lovely January and a wonderful start to the year!

About The Author

Catherine Boeckmann

Catherine Boeckmann loves nature, stargazing, and gardening so it’s not surprising that she and The Old Farmer’s Almanac found each other. She leads digital content for the Almanac website, and is also a certified master gardener in the state of Indiana. Read More from Catherine Boeckmann

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