Fall planting guide: why, when, and what to plant
Plant a fall vegetable garden—to extend the growing season and your harvest. See our fall planting guide on the benefits of a fall garden, when to plant a fall garden, and the must-grow autumn crops.
In late summer, you might think the garden is winding down, but this is the perfect (and easy) time to bring in those wonderful cool-weather vegetables.
Why Plant a Fall Garden
I love fall gardening—less pests, less watering and weeding, and more pleasant weather conditions.
- In warmer regions, many crops grow just as well in the fall as the spring, especially spinach, Swiss chard, broccoli, and kale.
- In colder climates, many of these same vegetables are frost-tolerant. Many crops taste better after a frost or two.
As soon as your spring and summer crops stop producing, pull them and make room for all those delicious fall crops! There are just three steps to consider.
When to Plant a Fall Garden
Timing is everything. To plan what to plant in your fall garden, See our Fall Planting Dates Calendar. We’e calculated your frost dates, backed out vegetable maturity dates (found on your seed packet), some time for harvesting and other fall factors.
Or, you can consult the Frost Dates Calcultor to find the first fall frost date for your area.
Where I live, it is around September 20 but often it is another month before we get a killing frost. There is a lot of glorious gardening weather between now and then.
Even though the days are beginning to shorten, the soil is warmer than it was in May so seeds sown now will germinate much faster.
6 Must-Grow Autumn Crops
If you’re going to plant just a handful of crops in autumn, we’ll show you our 6 must-grow veggies!
More Vegetable Crops for Autumn
For a larger garden or more selection, here’s a longer list of vegetables to plant in late summer to keep the garden going through autumn! Pay attention to which veggies are frost-tolerant and which are tender.
- Fast growing, tender veggies like summer squash and zucchini will bear fruit in 45 to 50 days.
- Bush beans take about 6 to 8 weeks to reach a harvestible size. The only problem with these crops is that they will be killed by frost unless you plan to protect them. If you live in an area with a long growing season, this will not be a problem.
- As the weather cools, plant crops that are cold-tolerant and mature quickly. Salad greens are fast and hardy; leaf lettuces are ready to cut in 45 to 50 days. Looseleaf and butterhead leaves can be harvested at just about any time in their development. Sometime lettuce seeds have difficulty germinating in hot soil, so I start my new baby lettuces in flats that I can keep well-watered and shaded until the plants are large enough to transplant into the garden. Some varieties of lettuce such as ‘Winter Marvel’ and ‘New Red Fire’ are more cold-tolerant than others.
- A quick crop of radishes will be ready for the salad bowl in 25 days.
- Other root crops, like carrots, beets, and turnips, will take longer, but are worth the wait since they seem to get sweeter as the days get cooler.
- Snap peas and snow peas start to bear in 60 days and peas that mature in cold weather seem especially sweet and crisp. Pea vines can survive temperatures down to 25 degrees.
- Fall-planted spinach does much better than spring planted spinach since it is maturing during the cool weather it loves instead of struggling in the summer heat.
- Swiss chard is another hardy green that reaches an edible size in 25 to 30 days. Given some extra protection when frost threatens, spinach and chard can last well into fall. If well-mulched, in many parts of the country spinach will winter over and give you an extra-early spring crop of the best spinach you’ve ever tasted!
- Broccoli and kohlrabi mature well in cool weather and will not be bothered by the cabbage moth larvae as much as spring-planted cold crops are.
- Kale is a winter staple. Try blue-green ‘Winterbor’ or pretty purple ‘Redbor’. They can be harvested long after other greens have been killed by cold weather.
- The real stars of the fall garden are the Asian greens. Quick maturing varieties can be harvested in 45 days. Tatsoi, pac choi, mizuna, and napa are all in the brassica family. They can weather a frost and will last through a hard freeze if given some protection.
Some Asian greens like hon tsai tai and mibuna are more closely related to mustard (also a brassica), which gives them tangy leaves that add a pleasant bite to an autumn salad or stir fry. Other greens such as arugula, mache, minutina, and claytonia can withstand quite cold temperatures, providing you with lots of interesting salads and cooked greens well into late fall.
How to Grow a Fall Garden
Watering is probably your post important task for a fall garden. The air and ground temperature is already hot (unlike spring plantings).
- It will be important to keep your seeds consistently watered.
- Adding mulch also helps water conservation.
- If the heat and Sun in your area is too intense, consider a lightweight row cover.
Fall can be a second spring. After harvesting garlic in July, there will be lots of room for fall crops. Freshen up the empty beds with some compost and get ready to plant your second garden.
Want even more advice on planting your fall garden?
- You’ll love this video on Succession Planting: How to Harvest More from Your Vegetable Garden.
- Here is a very handy chart from The Old Farmer’s Almanac which lists the last planting dates for second crops in your region.
Tell us all about your second garden in the comments below!