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2023 Planting Calendar: When to Start Vegetable Seeds | The Old Farmer's Almanac

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Planting Calendar for Alliston, ON

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The planting calendar below tells you when to plant in the SPRING and also plant in the FALL, based on your zip code or postal code.

Fall Planting Calendar

When we say "fall," we really mean planting in summer in time for a fall harvest. Think of this as a second summer! It's easy to keep the crops going if you're already prepared the soil! 

Many crops that would be started indoors for a spring crop can just be plunked into the soil directly for a fall crop. Not only is the soil already warm but also there are less pests and it tends to be rainier so you don't need to water as often. Some fall vegetables need to be harvested by the first frost but also many are frost-tolerant—and even taste better after a kiss of fall frost!

See each plant's individual Growing Guide for more specific planting, plant care, and harvesting information.

Spring Planting Calendar

Our spring planting calendar starts with the very first dates that you can plant (based on the last spring frost). But if you've missed these dates, no worries! This is why we've added "last planting dates" to our spring calendar; this is meant to help new gardeners understand that if they missed the first spring planting window, they can still get crops in the ground.

In fact, many crops with short maturity times (such as radishes) can be succession planted all the way through the summer in northern areas. However, note that some cool-seasons crops such as kale and lettuce do not grow well in hot tempertures, which can cause bolting issues.  For some gardeners, especially in the South, a break to avoid summer heat is needed, but they can start once the heat has passed. 

The dates provided are based on the number of weeks before or after frost, so we can provide a unique calendar to every user in the country. Thus several crops (especially similar crops) may appear to have the same date. Kale and lettuce, for example, or dates for starting seeds, like broccoli and cabbage. 

Specifically, on the charts, there are different columns labeled as follows:

  1. Start Seeds Indoors: When to sow seeds indoors to get an early start on the season.
  2. Plant Seedlings Outdoors: When to put small seedlings that you grew indoors (OR starter plants that you bought at a garden nursery) in the outdoor soil.
  3. Start Seeds Outdoors: When to plant seeds directly into the outdoor soil.
  4. Last Date to Plant: You may plant any time from the "start seeds" dates until this "last date." Don't wait any longer, or the crop won't have time to get to harvest before fall/winter frosts.

The "Moon Dates" indicate the best planting dates based on Moon phases. You can learn more about this age-old technique below.

When N/A appears in the chart, that starting method is typically not recommended, although it is likely still possible. 

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Planting Dates for Fall

On average, your first fall frost occurs on October 3 (at ALLISTON NELSON, ON climate station).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Moon Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds OutdoorsTransplantAverage Days to MaturityFrost Tolerance
ArugulaFrost Aug 15-Sep 19
Moon Aug 16-30
N/A40Frost-hardy
BeetsFrost Jul 11-Aug 8
Moon Jul 11-16, Aug 2- 8
N/A50Frost-tolerant
Bok ChoyFrost Jul 25-Aug 15
Moon Jul 25-Aug 1
N/A50Frost-tolerant
BroccoliFrost Jul 4-11
Frost Jul 25-Aug 8
Moon Jul 25-Aug 1
60Frost-tolerant
CabbageFrost Jul 4-11
Frost Jul 25-Aug 1
Moon Jul 25-Aug 1
90Frost-tolerant
CarrotsFrost Jul 18-25
N/A70Frost-tolerant
CauliflowerFrost Jun 27-Jul 4
Moon Jun 27-Jul 3
Frost Jul 11-18
Moon Jul 17-18
75Frost-tolerant
ChivesFrost Jul 11-Aug 8
Moon Jul 17-Aug 1
N/A70Frost-tolerant
GarlicFrost Oct 17-31
Moon Oct 29-31
N/A120Frost-hardy
Green BeansFrost Jul 18-Aug 1
Moon Jul 18-Aug 1
N/A55Tender
KaleFrost Jul 25-Aug 8
Moon Jul 25-Aug 1
N/A60Frost-hardy
KohlrabiFrost Aug 1-22
Moon Aug 1, Aug 16-22
N/A45Frost-tolerant
LettuceFrost Jul 25-Aug 8
Moon Jul 25-Aug 1
N/A60Frost-tolerant
PeasFrost Jul 25-Aug 8
Moon Jul 25-Aug 1
N/A55Tender
RadishesFrost Aug 22-Sep 5
Moon Aug 31-Sep 5
N/A25Frost-tolerant
SpinachFrost Aug 15-Sep 5
Moon Aug 16-30
N/A30Frost-hardy
Swiss ChardFrost Jul 25-Aug 8
Moon Jul 25-Aug 1
N/A60Frost-tolerant
TurnipsFrost Aug 1-15
Moon Aug 2-15
N/A50Frost-tolerant

Planting Dates for Spring

On average, your last spring frost occurs on May 17 (at ALLISTON NELSON, ON climate station, elevation 725 feet).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Moon Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds IndoorsPlant Seedlings
or Transplants
Start Seeds OutdoorsLast Date to Plant
ArugulaFrost Mar 22-Apr 5
Moon Mar 22-Apr 5
Frost Apr 26-May 10
Moon Apr 26-May 5
Frost Apr 19-26
Moon Apr 19-26
Sep 5
AsparagusN/AN/AFrost May 3-17
Moon May 6-17
May 17
BasilFrost Apr 5-19
Moon Apr 5
Frost May 31-Jun 14
Moon May 31-Jun 3
Frost May 31-Jun 14
Moon May 31-Jun 3
Aug 22
BeetsN/AFrost May 3-17
Moon May 6-17
Frost Apr 19-26
May 31
Bell PeppersFrost Mar 7-22
Moon Mar 7
Frost May 31-Jun 7
Moon May 31-Jun 3
N/AJul 11
Bok ChoyFrost Apr 5-19
Moon Apr 5
Frost May 31-Jun 7
Moon May 31-Jun 3
Frost May 31-Jun 7
Moon May 31-Jun 3
Jun 28
BroccoliFrost Mar 22-Apr 5
Moon Mar 22-Apr 5
Frost May 3-17
Moon May 3- 5
Frost Apr 19-26
Moon Apr 19-26
Aug 1
Brussels SproutsFrost Apr 5-19
Moon Apr 5
Frost Feb 7-21
Moon Feb 20-21
Frost Jan 10-24
Moon Jan 21-24
Jun 27
CabbageFrost Mar 22-Apr 5
Moon Mar 22-Apr 5
Frost May 3-17
Moon May 3- 5
Frost Apr 19-26
Moon Apr 19-26
Jun 20
CantaloupesFrost Apr 26-May 10
Moon Apr 26-May 5
Frost May 17-31
Moon May 19-31
Frost May 24-31
Moon May 24-31
Jun 27
CarrotsN/AN/AFrost Apr 19-May 3
Jul 25
CauliflowerFrost Apr 5-19
Moon Apr 5
Frost May 10-24
Moon May 19-24
N/AJul 25
CeleryFrost Feb 21-Mar 7
Moon Feb 21-Mar 7
Frost May 24-Jun 7
Moon May 24-Jun 3
Frost May 17
Jul 25
ChivesFrost Mar 22-Apr 5
Moon Mar 22-Apr 5
Frost Apr 26-May 3
Moon Apr 26-May 3
Frost Apr 26-May 3
Moon Apr 26-May 3
Aug 8
Cilantro (Coriander)N/AN/AFrost May 17-31
Moon May 19-31
Jun 7
CollardsFrost Apr 5-19
Moon Apr 5
Frost May 3-17
Moon May 3- 5
Frost Apr 26-May 3
Moon Apr 26-May 3
Jul 25
CornN/AN/AFrost May 31-Jun 14
Moon May 31-Jun 3
Jul 18
CucumbersFrost Apr 26-May 3
Moon Apr 26-May 3
Frost May 24-Jun 7
Moon May 24-Jun 3
Frost May 31-Jun 7
Moon May 31-Jun 3
Jul 25
DillN/AN/AFrost May 10-31
Moon May 19-31
Aug 8
EggplantsFrost Mar 22-Apr 5
Moon Mar 22-Apr 5
Frost May 31-Jun 7
Moon May 31-Jun 3
N/AJul 25
Fava Beans (Broad Beans)N/AN/AFrost Apr 19-26
Moon Apr 19-26
May 31
GarlicN/AN/AN/A
Green BeansN/AN/AFrost May 24-Jun 14
Moon May 24-Jun 3
Jul 25
Jalapeño PeppersFrost Mar 7-22
Moon Mar 7
Frost May 31-Jun 7
Moon May 31-Jun 3
N/A
KaleFrost Mar 22-Apr 5
Moon Mar 22-Apr 5
Frost May 3-17
Moon May 3- 5
Frost Apr 19-26
Moon Apr 19-26
May 31
KohlrabiFrost Apr 5-19
Moon Apr 5
Frost Apr 26-May 3
Moon Apr 26-May 3
Frost Apr 19-26
Moon Apr 19-26
May 31
LettuceFrost Apr 5-19
Moon Apr 5
Frost Apr 26-May 3
Moon Apr 26-May 3
Frost Apr 19-26
Moon Apr 19-26
May 31
OkraFrost Apr 19-May 3
Moon Apr 19-May 3
Frost May 31-Jun 7
Moon May 31-Jun 3
Frost May 31-Jun 14
Moon May 31-Jun 3
Jul 25
Onion SetsN/AFrost Apr 19-May 3
N/AJun 27
OreganoFrost Mar 7-Apr 5
Moon Mar 7, Mar 23-Apr 5
Frost May 24-Jun 7
Moon May 24-Jun 3
N/AJul 25
ParsleyFrost Mar 7-22
Moon Mar 7
Frost May 24-Jun 7
Moon May 24-Jun 3
Frost Apr 19-May 24
Moon Apr 19-May 5
Jul 18
ParsnipsN/AN/AFrost Apr 19-26
Jun 27
PeasN/AN/AFrost Apr 19-26
Moon Apr 19-26
May 31
PotatoesN/AN/AFrost Apr 19-May 3
Jul 25
PumpkinsFrost Apr 26-May 10
Moon Apr 26-May 5
Frost May 31-Jun 7
Moon May 31-Jun 3
Frost May 31-Jun 7
Moon May 31-Jun 3
Jun 20
RadishesN/AN/AFrost Apr 19-26
Aug 8
RosemaryFrost Feb 21-Mar 7
Moon Feb 21-Mar 7
Frost May 31-Jun 7
Moon May 31-Jun 3
N/AAug 8
SageFrost Mar 22-Apr 5
Moon Mar 22-Apr 5
Frost May 24-Jun 7
Moon May 24-Jun 3
N/AJul 18
SpinachFrost Apr 5-19
Moon Apr 5
Frost Apr 26-May 3
Moon Apr 26-May 3
Frost Apr 19-26
Moon Apr 19-26
May 31
Sweet PotatoesN/AN/AFrost May 31-Jun 14
Moon Jun 4-14
Jun 20
Swiss ChardFrost Apr 5-19
Moon Apr 5
Frost May 3-17
Moon May 3- 5
Frost Apr 26-May 17
Moon Apr 26-May 5
May 31
ThymeFrost Mar 7-22
Moon Mar 7
Frost May 24-31
Moon May 24-31
N/AJul 11
TomatillosFrost Apr 5-19
Moon Apr 5
Frost May 31-Jun 14
Moon May 31-Jun 3
N/AJul 18
TomatoesFrost Mar 22-Apr 5
Moon Mar 22-Apr 5
Frost May 31-Jun 7
Moon May 31-Jun 3
N/AJul 4
TurnipsN/AN/AFrost Apr 19-26
Sep 5
WatermelonsFrost Apr 26-May 10
Moon Apr 26-May 5
Frost May 31-Jun 7
Moon May 31-Jun 3
Frost May 24-31
Moon May 24-31
Jul 4
Winter SquashFrost Apr 26-May 3
Moon Apr 26-May 3
Frost May 24-Jun 7
Moon May 24-Jun 3
Frost May 31-Jun 7
Moon May 31-Jun 3
Jun 13
Zucchini and Summer SquashFrost Apr 26-May 3
Moon Apr 26-May 3
Frost May 24-Jun 7
Moon May 24-Jun 3
Frost May 31-Jun 7
Moon May 31-Jun 3
Aug 1
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