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2023 Planting Calendar: When to Start Vegetable Seeds | The Old Farmer's Almanac

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Planting Calendar for Sutton, ON

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The planting calendar below tells you when to plant in the SPRING and also plant in the FALL, based on your zip code or postal code.

Fall Planting Calendar

When we say "fall," we really mean planting in summer in time for a fall harvest. Think of this as a second summer! It's easy to keep the crops going if you're already prepared the soil! 

Many crops that would be started indoors for a spring crop can just be plunked into the soil directly for a fall crop. Not only is the soil already warm but also there are less pests and it tends to be rainier so you don't need to water as often. Some fall vegetables need to be harvested by the first frost but also many are frost-tolerant—and even taste better after a kiss of fall frost!

See each plant's individual Growing Guide for more specific planting, plant care, and harvesting information.

Spring Planting Calendar

Our spring planting calendar starts with the very first dates that you can plant (based on the last spring frost). But if you've missed these dates, no worries! This is why we've added "last planting dates" to our spring calendar; this is meant to help new gardeners understand that if they missed the first spring planting window, they can still get crops in the ground.

In fact, many crops with short maturity times (such as radishes) can be succession planted all the way through the summer in northern areas. However, note that some cool-seasons crops such as kale and lettuce do not grow well in hot tempertures, which can cause bolting issues.  For some gardeners, especially in the South, a break to avoid summer heat is needed, but they can start once the heat has passed. 

The dates provided are based on the number of weeks before or after frost, so we can provide a unique calendar to every user in the country. Thus several crops (especially similar crops) may appear to have the same date. Kale and lettuce, for example, or dates for starting seeds, like broccoli and cabbage. 

Specifically, on the charts, there are different columns labeled as follows:

  1. Start Seeds Indoors: When to sow seeds indoors to get an early start on the season.
  2. Plant Seedlings Outdoors: When to put small seedlings that you grew indoors (OR starter plants that you bought at a garden nursery) in the outdoor soil.
  3. Start Seeds Outdoors: When to plant seeds directly into the outdoor soil.
  4. Last Date to Plant: You may plant any time from the "start seeds" dates until this "last date." Don't wait any longer, or the crop won't have time to get to harvest before fall/winter frosts.

The "Moon Dates" indicate the best planting dates based on Moon phases. You can learn more about this age-old technique below.

When N/A appears in the chart, that starting method is typically not recommended, although it is likely still possible. 

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Planting Dates for Fall

On average, your first fall frost occurs on September 30 (at SHANTY BAY, ON climate station).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Moon Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds OutdoorsTransplantAverage Days to MaturityFrost Tolerance
ArugulaFrost Aug 12-Sep 16
Moon Aug 16-30
N/A40Frost-hardy
BeetsFrost Jul 8-Aug 5
Moon Jul 8-16, Aug 2- 5
N/A50Frost-tolerant
Bok ChoyFrost Jul 22-Aug 12
Moon Jul 22-Aug 1
N/A50Frost-tolerant
BroccoliFrost Jul 1- 8
Moon Jul 1- 3
Frost Jul 22-Aug 5
Moon Jul 22-Aug 1
60Frost-tolerant
CabbageFrost Jul 1- 8
Moon Jul 1- 3
Frost Jul 22-29
Moon Jul 22-29
90Frost-tolerant
CarrotsFrost Jul 15-22
Moon Jul 15-16
N/A70Frost-tolerant
CauliflowerFrost Jun 24-Jul 1
Moon Jun 24-Jul 1
Frost Jul 8-15
75Frost-tolerant
ChivesFrost Jul 8-Aug 5
Moon Jul 17-Aug 1
N/A70Frost-tolerant
GarlicFrost Oct 14-28
N/A120Frost-hardy
Green BeansFrost Jul 15-29
Moon Jul 17-29
N/A55Tender
KaleFrost Jul 22-Aug 5
Moon Jul 22-Aug 1
N/A60Frost-hardy
KohlrabiFrost Jul 29-Aug 19
Moon Jul 29-Aug 1, Aug 16-19
N/A45Frost-tolerant
LettuceFrost Jul 22-Aug 5
Moon Jul 22-Aug 1
N/A60Frost-tolerant
PeasFrost Jul 22-Aug 5
Moon Jul 22-Aug 1
N/A55Tender
RadishesFrost Aug 19-Sep 2
Moon Aug 31-Sep 2
N/A25Frost-tolerant
SpinachFrost Aug 12-Sep 2
Moon Aug 16-30
N/A30Frost-hardy
Swiss ChardFrost Jul 22-Aug 5
Moon Jul 22-Aug 1
N/A60Frost-tolerant
TurnipsFrost Jul 29-Aug 12
Moon Aug 2-12
N/A50Frost-tolerant

Planting Dates for Spring

On average, your last spring frost occurs on May 14 (at SHANTY BAY, ON climate station, elevation 820 feet).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Moon Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds IndoorsPlant Seedlings
or Transplants
Start Seeds OutdoorsLast Date to Plant
ArugulaFrost Mar 19-Apr 2
Moon Mar 21-Apr 2
Frost Apr 23-May 7
Moon Apr 23-May 5
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 19-23
Sep 2
AsparagusN/AN/AFrost Apr 30-May 14
Moon May 6-14
May 14
BasilFrost Apr 2-16
Moon Apr 2- 5
Frost May 28-Jun 11
Moon May 28-Jun 3
Frost May 28-Jun 11
Moon May 28-Jun 3
Aug 19
BeetsN/AFrost Apr 30-May 14
Moon May 6-14
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 16-18
May 28
Bell PeppersFrost Mar 4-19
Moon Mar 4- 7
Frost May 28-Jun 4
Moon May 28-Jun 3
N/AJul 8
Bok ChoyFrost Apr 2-16
Moon Apr 2- 5
Frost May 28-Jun 4
Moon May 28-Jun 3
Frost May 28-Jun 4
Moon May 28-Jun 3
Jun 25
BroccoliFrost Mar 19-Apr 2
Moon Mar 21-Apr 2
Frost Apr 30-May 14
Moon Apr 30-May 5
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 19-23
Jul 29
Brussels SproutsFrost Apr 2-16
Moon Apr 2- 5
Frost Feb 4-18
Moon Feb 4- 5
Frost Jan 7-21
Moon Jan 21
Jun 24
CabbageFrost Mar 19-Apr 2
Moon Mar 21-Apr 2
Frost Apr 30-May 14
Moon Apr 30-May 5
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 19-23
Jun 17
CantaloupesFrost Apr 23-May 7
Moon Apr 23-May 5
Frost May 14-28
Moon May 19-28
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-28
Jun 24
CarrotsN/AN/AFrost Apr 16-30
Moon Apr 16-18
Jul 22
CauliflowerFrost Apr 2-16
Moon Apr 2- 5
Frost May 7-21
Moon May 19-21
N/AJul 22
CeleryFrost Feb 18-Mar 4
Moon Feb 20-Mar 4
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-Jun 3
Frost May 14
Jul 22
ChivesFrost Mar 19-Apr 2
Moon Mar 21-Apr 2
Frost Apr 23-30
Moon Apr 23-30
Frost Apr 23-30
Moon Apr 23-30
Aug 5
Cilantro (Coriander)N/AN/AFrost May 14-28
Moon May 19-28
Jun 4
CollardsFrost Apr 2-16
Moon Apr 2- 5
Frost Apr 30-May 14
Moon Apr 30-May 5
Frost Apr 23-30
Moon Apr 23-30
Jul 22
CornN/AN/AFrost May 28-Jun 11
Moon May 28-Jun 3
Jul 15
CucumbersFrost Apr 23-30
Moon Apr 23-30
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-Jun 3
Frost May 28-Jun 4
Moon May 28-Jun 3
Jul 22
DillN/AN/AFrost May 7-28
Moon May 19-28
Aug 5
EggplantsFrost Mar 19-Apr 2
Moon Mar 21-Apr 2
Frost May 28-Jun 4
Moon May 28-Jun 3
N/AJul 22
Fava Beans (Broad Beans)N/AN/AFrost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 19-23
May 28
GarlicN/AN/AN/A
Green BeansN/AN/AFrost May 21-Jun 11
Moon May 21-Jun 3
Jul 22
Jalapeño PeppersFrost Mar 4-19
Moon Mar 4- 7
Frost May 28-Jun 4
Moon May 28-Jun 3
N/A
KaleFrost Mar 19-Apr 2
Moon Mar 21-Apr 2
Frost Apr 30-May 14
Moon Apr 30-May 5
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 19-23
May 28
KohlrabiFrost Apr 2-16
Moon Apr 2- 5
Frost Apr 23-30
Moon Apr 23-30
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 19-23
May 28
LettuceFrost Apr 2-16
Moon Apr 2- 5
Frost Apr 23-30
Moon Apr 23-30
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 19-23
May 28
OkraFrost Apr 16-30
Moon Apr 19-30
Frost May 28-Jun 4
Moon May 28-Jun 3
Frost May 28-Jun 11
Moon May 28-Jun 3
Jul 22
Onion SetsN/AFrost Apr 16-30
Moon Apr 16-18
N/AJun 24
OreganoFrost Mar 4-Apr 2
Moon Mar 4- 7, Mar 21-Apr 2
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-Jun 3
N/AJul 22
ParsleyFrost Mar 4-19
Moon Mar 4- 7
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-Jun 3
Frost Apr 16-May 21
Moon Apr 19-May 5
Jul 15
ParsnipsN/AN/AFrost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 16-18
Jun 24
PeasN/AN/AFrost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 19-23
May 28
PotatoesN/AN/AFrost Apr 16-30
Moon Apr 16-18
Jul 22
PumpkinsFrost Apr 23-May 7
Moon Apr 23-May 5
Frost May 28-Jun 4
Moon May 28-Jun 3
Frost May 28-Jun 4
Moon May 28-Jun 3
Jun 17
RadishesN/AN/AFrost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 16-18
Aug 5
RosemaryFrost Feb 18-Mar 4
Moon Feb 20-Mar 4
Frost May 28-Jun 4
Moon May 28-Jun 3
N/AAug 5
SageFrost Mar 19-Apr 2
Moon Mar 21-Apr 2
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-Jun 3
N/AJul 15
SpinachFrost Apr 2-16
Moon Apr 2- 5
Frost Apr 23-30
Moon Apr 23-30
Frost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 19-23
May 28
Sweet PotatoesN/AN/AFrost May 28-Jun 11
Moon Jun 4-11
Jun 17
Swiss ChardFrost Apr 2-16
Moon Apr 2- 5
Frost Apr 30-May 14
Moon Apr 30-May 5
Frost Apr 23-May 14
Moon Apr 23-May 5
May 28
ThymeFrost Mar 4-19
Moon Mar 4- 7
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-28
N/AJul 8
TomatillosFrost Apr 2-16
Moon Apr 2- 5
Frost May 28-Jun 11
Moon May 28-Jun 3
N/AJul 15
TomatoesFrost Mar 19-Apr 2
Moon Mar 21-Apr 2
Frost May 28-Jun 4
Moon May 28-Jun 3
N/AJul 1
TurnipsN/AN/AFrost Apr 16-23
Moon Apr 16-18
Sep 2
WatermelonsFrost Apr 23-May 7
Moon Apr 23-May 5
Frost May 28-Jun 4
Moon May 28-Jun 3
Frost May 21-28
Moon May 21-28
Jul 1
Winter SquashFrost Apr 23-30
Moon Apr 23-30
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-Jun 3
Frost May 28-Jun 4
Moon May 28-Jun 3
Jun 10
Zucchini and Summer SquashFrost Apr 23-30
Moon Apr 23-30
Frost May 21-Jun 4
Moon May 21-Jun 3
Frost May 28-Jun 4
Moon May 28-Jun 3
Jul 29
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