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2023 Planting Calendar: When to Start Vegetable Seeds | The Old Farmer's Almanac

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Planting Calendar for Troy, AL

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The planting calendar below tells you when to plant in the SPRING and also plant in the FALL, based on your zip code or postal code.

Fall Planting Calendar

When we say "fall," we really mean planting in summer in time for a fall harvest. Think of this as a second summer! It's easy to keep the crops going if you're already prepared the soil! 

Many crops that would be started indoors for a spring crop can just be plunked into the soil directly for a fall crop. Not only is the soil already warm but also there are less pests and it tends to be rainier so you don't need to water as often. Some fall vegetables need to be harvested by the first frost but also many are frost-tolerant—and even taste better after a kiss of fall frost!

See each plant's individual Growing Guide for more specific planting, plant care, and harvesting information.

Spring Planting Calendar

Our spring planting calendar starts with the very first dates that you can plant (based on the last spring frost). But if you've missed these dates, no worries! This is why we've added "last planting dates" to our spring calendar; this is meant to help new gardeners understand that if they missed the first spring planting window, they can still get crops in the ground.

In fact, many crops with short maturity times (such as radishes) can be succession planted all the way through the summer in northern areas. However, note that some cool-seasons crops such as kale and lettuce do not grow well in hot tempertures, which can cause bolting issues.  For some gardeners, especially in the South, a break to avoid summer heat is needed, but they can start once the heat has passed. 

The dates provided are based on the number of weeks before or after frost, so we can provide a unique calendar to every user in the country. Thus several crops (especially similar crops) may appear to have the same date. Kale and lettuce, for example, or dates for starting seeds, like broccoli and cabbage. 

Specifically, on the charts, there are different columns labeled as follows:

  1. Start Seeds Indoors: When to sow seeds indoors to get an early start on the season.
  2. Plant Seedlings Outdoors: When to put small seedlings that you grew indoors (OR starter plants that you bought at a garden nursery) in the outdoor soil.
  3. Start Seeds Outdoors: When to plant seeds directly into the outdoor soil.
  4. Last Date to Plant: You may plant any time from the "start seeds" dates until this "last date." Don't wait any longer, or the crop won't have time to get to harvest before fall/winter frosts.

The "Moon Dates" indicate the best planting dates based on Moon phases. You can learn more about this age-old technique below.

When N/A appears in the chart, that starting method is typically not recommended, although it is likely still possible. 

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Planting Dates for Fall

On average, your first fall frost occurs on November 12 (at TROY, AL climate station).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Moon Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds OutdoorsTransplantAverage Days to MaturityFrost Tolerance
ArugulaFrost Sep 24-Oct 29
Moon Sep 24-29, Oct 14-28
N/A40Frost-hardy
BeetsFrost Aug 20-Sep 17
Moon Aug 31-Sep 13
N/A50Frost-tolerant
Bok ChoyFrost Sep 3-24
Moon Sep 14-24
N/A50Frost-tolerant
BroccoliFrost Aug 13-20
Moon Aug 16-20
Frost Sep 3-17
Moon Sep 14-17
60Frost-tolerant
CabbageFrost Aug 13-20
Moon Aug 16-20
Frost Sep 3-10
90Frost-tolerant
CarrotsFrost Aug 27-Sep 3
Moon Aug 31-Sep 3
N/A70Frost-tolerant
CauliflowerFrost Aug 6-13
Frost Aug 20-27
Moon Aug 20-27
75Frost-tolerant
ChivesFrost Aug 20-Sep 17
Moon Aug 20-30, Sep 14-17
N/A70Frost-tolerant
GarlicFrost Nov 26-Dec 10
Moon Nov 28-Dec 10
N/A120Frost-hardy
Green BeansFrost Aug 27-Sep 10
Moon Aug 27-30
N/A55Tender
KaleFrost Sep 3-17
Moon Sep 14-17
N/A60Frost-hardy
KohlrabiFrost Sep 10-Oct 1
Moon Sep 14-29
N/A45Frost-tolerant
LettuceFrost Sep 3-17
Moon Sep 14-17
N/A60Frost-tolerant
PeasFrost Sep 3-17
Moon Sep 14-17
N/A55Tender
RadishesFrost Oct 1-15
Moon Oct 1-13
N/A25Frost-tolerant
SpinachFrost Sep 24-Oct 15
Moon Sep 24-29, Oct 14-15
N/A30Frost-hardy
Swiss ChardFrost Sep 3-17
Moon Sep 14-17
N/A60Frost-tolerant
TurnipsFrost Sep 10-24
Moon Sep 10-13
N/A50Frost-tolerant

Planting Dates for Spring

On average, your last spring frost occurs on March 18 (at TROY, AL climate station, elevation 541 feet).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Moon Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds IndoorsPlant Seedlings
or Transplants
Start Seeds OutdoorsLast Date to Plant
ArugulaFrost Jan 20-Feb 3
Moon Jan 21-Feb 3
Frost Feb 24-Mar 10
Moon Feb 24-Mar 7
Frost Feb 17-24
Moon Feb 20-24
Oct 15
AsparagusN/AN/AFrost Mar 3-18
Moon Mar 8-18
Mar 18
BasilFrost Feb 3-17
Moon Feb 3- 5
Frost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 1- 5
Frost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 1- 5
Oct 1
BeetsN/AFrost Mar 3-18
Moon Mar 8-18
Frost Feb 17-24
Moon Feb 17-19
Apr 1
Bell PeppersFrost Jan 6-20
Moon Jan 6
Frost Apr 1- 8
Moon Apr 1- 5
N/AAug 20
Bok ChoyFrost Feb 3-17
Moon Feb 3- 5
Frost Apr 1- 8
Moon Apr 1- 5
Frost Apr 1- 8
Moon Apr 1- 5
Apr 29
BroccoliFrost Jan 20-Feb 3
Moon Jan 21-Feb 3
Frost Mar 3-18
Moon Mar 3- 7
Frost Feb 17-24
Moon Feb 20-24
Sep 10
Brussels SproutsFrost Feb 3-17
Moon Feb 3- 5
Frost Dec 9-23
Moon Dec 23
Frost Nov 11-25
Moon Nov 23-25
Aug 6
CabbageFrost Jan 20-Feb 3
Moon Jan 21-Feb 3
Frost Mar 3-18
Moon Mar 3- 7
Frost Feb 17-24
Moon Feb 20-24
Jul 30
CantaloupesFrost Feb 24-Mar 10
Moon Feb 24-Mar 7
Frost Mar 18-Apr 1
Moon Mar 21-Apr 1
Frost Mar 25-Apr 1
Moon Mar 25-Apr 1
Aug 6
CarrotsN/AN/AFrost Feb 17-Mar 3
Moon Feb 17-19
Sep 3
CauliflowerFrost Feb 3-17
Moon Feb 3- 5
Frost Mar 10-25
Moon Mar 21-25
N/ASep 3
CeleryFrost Dec 23-Jan 6
Moon Dec 23-Jan 6
Frost Mar 25-Apr 8
Moon Mar 25-Apr 5
Frost Mar 18
Sep 3
ChivesFrost Jan 20-Feb 3
Moon Jan 21-Feb 3
Frost Feb 24-Mar 3
Moon Feb 24-Mar 3
Frost Feb 24-Mar 3
Moon Feb 24-Mar 3
Sep 17
Cilantro (Coriander)N/AN/AFrost Mar 18-Apr 1
Moon Mar 21-Apr 1
Apr 8
CollardsFrost Feb 3-17
Moon Feb 3- 5
Frost Mar 3-18
Moon Mar 3- 7
Frost Feb 24-Mar 3
Moon Feb 24-Mar 3
Sep 3
CornN/AN/AFrost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 1- 5
Aug 27
CucumbersFrost Feb 24-Mar 3
Moon Feb 24-Mar 3
Frost Mar 25-Apr 8
Moon Mar 25-Apr 5
Frost Apr 1- 8
Moon Apr 1- 5
Sep 3
DillN/AN/AFrost Mar 10-Apr 1
Moon Mar 21-Apr 1
Sep 17
EggplantsFrost Jan 20-Feb 3
Moon Jan 21-Feb 3
Frost Apr 1- 8
Moon Apr 1- 5
N/ASep 3
Fava Beans (Broad Beans)N/AN/AFrost Feb 17-24
Moon Feb 20-24
Apr 1
GarlicN/AN/AN/A
Green BeansN/AN/AFrost Mar 25-Apr 15
Moon Mar 25-Apr 5
Sep 3
Jalapeño PeppersFrost Jan 6-20
Moon Jan 6
Frost Apr 1- 8
Moon Apr 1- 5
N/A
KaleFrost Jan 20-Feb 3
Moon Jan 21-Feb 3
Frost Mar 3-18
Moon Mar 3- 7
Frost Feb 17-24
Moon Feb 20-24
Apr 1
KohlrabiFrost Feb 3-17
Moon Feb 3- 5
Frost Feb 24-Mar 3
Moon Feb 24-Mar 3
Frost Feb 17-24
Moon Feb 20-24
Apr 1
LettuceFrost Feb 3-17
Moon Feb 3- 5
Frost Feb 24-Mar 3
Moon Feb 24-Mar 3
Frost Feb 17-24
Moon Feb 20-24
Apr 1
OkraFrost Feb 17-Mar 3
Moon Feb 20-Mar 3
Frost Apr 1- 8
Moon Apr 1- 5
Frost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 1- 5
Sep 3
Onion SetsN/AFrost Feb 17-Mar 3
Moon Feb 17-19
N/AAug 6
OreganoFrost Jan 6-Feb 3
Moon Jan 6, Jan 21-Feb 3
Frost Mar 25-Apr 8
Moon Mar 25-Apr 5
N/ASep 3
ParsleyFrost Jan 6-20
Moon Jan 6
Frost Mar 25-Apr 8
Moon Mar 25-Apr 5
Frost Feb 17-Mar 25
Moon Feb 20-Mar 7
Aug 27
ParsnipsN/AN/AFrost Feb 17-24
Moon Feb 17-19
Aug 6
PeasN/AN/AFrost Feb 17-24
Moon Feb 20-24
Apr 1
PotatoesN/AN/AFrost Feb 17-Mar 3
Moon Feb 17-19
Sep 3
PumpkinsFrost Feb 24-Mar 10
Moon Feb 24-Mar 7
Frost Apr 1- 8
Moon Apr 1- 5
Frost Apr 1- 8
Moon Apr 1- 5
Jul 30
RadishesN/AN/AFrost Feb 17-24
Moon Feb 17-19
Sep 17
RosemaryFrost Dec 23-Jan 6
Moon Dec 23-Jan 6
Frost Apr 1- 8
Moon Apr 1- 5
N/ASep 17
SageFrost Jan 20-Feb 3
Moon Jan 21-Feb 3
Frost Mar 25-Apr 8
Moon Mar 25-Apr 5
N/AAug 27
SpinachFrost Feb 3-17
Moon Feb 3- 5
Frost Feb 24-Mar 3
Moon Feb 24-Mar 3
Frost Feb 17-24
Moon Feb 20-24
Apr 1
Sweet PotatoesN/AN/AFrost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 6-15
Jul 30
Swiss ChardFrost Feb 3-17
Moon Feb 3- 5
Frost Mar 3-18
Moon Mar 3- 7
Frost Feb 24-Mar 18
Moon Feb 24-Mar 7
Apr 1
ThymeFrost Jan 6-20
Moon Jan 6
Frost Mar 25-Apr 1
Moon Mar 25-Apr 1
N/AAug 20
TomatillosFrost Feb 3-17
Moon Feb 3- 5
Frost Apr 1-15
Moon Apr 1- 5
N/AAug 27
TomatoesFrost Jan 20-Feb 3
Moon Jan 21-Feb 3
Frost Apr 1- 8
Moon Apr 1- 5
N/AAug 13
TurnipsN/AN/AFrost Feb 17-24
Moon Feb 17-19
Oct 15
WatermelonsFrost Feb 24-Mar 10
Moon Feb 24-Mar 7
Frost Apr 1- 8
Moon Apr 1- 5
Frost Mar 25-Apr 1
Moon Mar 25-Apr 1
Aug 13
Winter SquashFrost Feb 24-Mar 3
Moon Feb 24-Mar 3
Frost Mar 25-Apr 8
Moon Mar 25-Apr 5
Frost Apr 1- 8
Moon Apr 1- 5
Jul 23
Zucchini and Summer SquashFrost Feb 24-Mar 3
Moon Feb 24-Mar 3
Frost Mar 25-Apr 8
Moon Mar 25-Apr 5
Frost Apr 1- 8
Moon Apr 1- 5
Sep 10
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