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2023 Planting Calendar: When to Start Vegetable Seeds | The Old Farmer's Almanac

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Planting Calendar for Southgate, MI

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The planting calendar below tells you when to plant in the SPRING and also plant in the FALL, based on your zip code or postal code.

Fall Planting Calendar

When we say "fall," we really mean planting in summer in time for a fall harvest. Think of this as a second summer! It's easy to keep the crops going if you're already prepared the soil! 

Many crops that would be started indoors for a spring crop can just be plunked into the soil directly for a fall crop. Not only is the soil already warm but also there are less pests and it tends to be rainier so you don't need to water as often. Some fall vegetables need to be harvested by the first frost but also many are frost-tolerant—and even taste better after a kiss of fall frost!

See each plant's individual Growing Guide for more specific planting, plant care, and harvesting information.

Spring Planting Calendar

Our spring planting calendar starts with the very first dates that you can plant (based on the last spring frost). But if you've missed these dates, no worries! This is why we've added "last planting dates" to our spring calendar; this is meant to help new gardeners understand that if they missed the first spring planting window, they can still get crops in the ground.

In fact, many crops with short maturity times (such as radishes) can be succession planted all the way through the summer in northern areas. However, note that some cool-seasons crops such as kale and lettuce do not grow well in hot tempertures, which can cause bolting issues.  For some gardeners, especially in the South, a break to avoid summer heat is needed, but they can start once the heat has passed. 

The dates provided are based on the number of weeks before or after frost, so we can provide a unique calendar to every user in the country. Thus several crops (especially similar crops) may appear to have the same date. Kale and lettuce, for example, or dates for starting seeds, like broccoli and cabbage. 

Specifically, on the charts, there are different columns labeled as follows:

  1. Start Seeds Indoors: When to sow seeds indoors to get an early start on the season.
  2. Plant Seedlings Outdoors: When to put small seedlings that you grew indoors (OR starter plants that you bought at a garden nursery) in the outdoor soil.
  3. Start Seeds Outdoors: When to plant seeds directly into the outdoor soil.
  4. Last Date to Plant: You may plant any time from the "start seeds" dates until this "last date." Don't wait any longer, or the crop won't have time to get to harvest before fall/winter frosts.

The "Moon Dates" indicate the best planting dates based on Moon phases. You can learn more about this age-old technique below.

When N/A appears in the chart, that starting method is typically not recommended, although it is likely still possible. 

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Planting Dates for Fall

On average, your first fall frost occurs on October 9 (at DEARBORN, MI climate station).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Moon Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds OutdoorsTransplantAverage Days to MaturityFrost Tolerance
ArugulaFrost Aug 21-Sep 25
Moon Aug 21-30, Sep 14-25
N/A40Frost-hardy
BeetsFrost Jul 17-Aug 14
Moon Aug 2-14
N/A50Frost-tolerant
Bok ChoyFrost Jul 31-Aug 21
Moon Jul 31-Aug 1, Aug 16-21
N/A50Frost-tolerant
BroccoliFrost Jul 10-17
Moon Jul 17
Frost Jul 31-Aug 14
Moon Jul 31-Aug 1
60Frost-tolerant
CabbageFrost Jul 10-17
Moon Jul 17
Frost Jul 31-Aug 7
Moon Jul 31-Aug 1
90Frost-tolerant
CarrotsFrost Jul 24-31
N/A70Frost-tolerant
CauliflowerFrost Jul 3-10
Moon Jul 3
Frost Jul 17-24
Moon Jul 17-24
75Frost-tolerant
ChivesFrost Jul 17-Aug 14
Moon Jul 17-Aug 1
N/A70Frost-tolerant
GarlicFrost Oct 23-Nov 5
Moon Oct 29-Nov 5
N/A120Frost-hardy
Green BeansFrost Jul 24-Aug 7
Moon Jul 24-Aug 1
N/A55Tender
KaleFrost Jul 31-Aug 14
Moon Jul 31-Aug 1
N/A60Frost-hardy
KohlrabiFrost Aug 7-28
Moon Aug 16-28
N/A45Frost-tolerant
LettuceFrost Jul 31-Aug 14
Moon Jul 31-Aug 1
N/A60Frost-tolerant
PeasFrost Jul 31-Aug 14
Moon Jul 31-Aug 1
N/A55Tender
RadishesFrost Aug 28-Sep 11
Moon Aug 31-Sep 11
N/A25Frost-tolerant
SpinachFrost Aug 21-Sep 11
Moon Aug 21-30
N/A30Frost-hardy
Swiss ChardFrost Jul 31-Aug 14
Moon Jul 31-Aug 1
N/A60Frost-tolerant
TurnipsFrost Aug 7-21
Moon Aug 7-15
N/A50Frost-tolerant

Planting Dates for Spring

On average, your last spring frost occurs on May 8 (at DEARBORN, MI climate station, elevation 603 feet).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Moon Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds IndoorsPlant Seedlings
or Transplants
Start Seeds OutdoorsLast Date to Plant
ArugulaFrost Mar 13-27
Moon Mar 21-27
Frost Apr 17-May 1
Moon Apr 19-May 1
Frost Apr 10-17
Sep 11
AsparagusN/AN/AFrost Apr 24-May 8
Moon May 6- 8
May 8
BasilFrost Mar 27-Apr 10
Moon Mar 27-Apr 5
Frost May 22-Jun 5
Moon May 22-Jun 3
Frost May 22-Jun 5
Moon May 22-Jun 3
Aug 28
BeetsN/AFrost Apr 24-May 8
Moon May 6- 8
Frost Apr 10-17
Moon Apr 10-17
May 22
Bell PeppersFrost Feb 26-Mar 13
Moon Feb 26-Mar 7
Frost May 22-29
Moon May 22-29
N/AJul 17
Bok ChoyFrost Mar 27-Apr 10
Moon Mar 27-Apr 5
Frost May 22-29
Moon May 22-29
Frost May 22-29
Moon May 22-29
Jun 19
BroccoliFrost Mar 13-27
Moon Mar 21-27
Frost Apr 24-May 8
Moon Apr 24-May 5
Frost Apr 10-17
Aug 7
Brussels SproutsFrost Mar 27-Apr 10
Moon Mar 27-Apr 5
Frost Jan 29-Feb 12
Moon Jan 29-Feb 5
Frost Jan 1-15
Moon Jan 1- 6
Jul 3
CabbageFrost Mar 13-27
Moon Mar 21-27
Frost Apr 24-May 8
Moon Apr 24-May 5
Frost Apr 10-17
Jun 26
CantaloupesFrost Apr 17-May 1
Moon Apr 19-May 1
Frost May 8-22
Moon May 19-22
Frost May 15-22
Moon May 19-22
Jul 3
CarrotsN/AN/AFrost Apr 10-24
Moon Apr 10-18
Jul 31
CauliflowerFrost Mar 27-Apr 10
Moon Mar 27-Apr 5
Frost May 1-15
Moon May 1- 5
N/AJul 31
CeleryFrost Feb 12-26
Moon Feb 20-26
Frost May 15-29
Moon May 19-29
Frost May 8
Jul 31
ChivesFrost Mar 13-27
Moon Mar 21-27
Frost Apr 17-24
Moon Apr 19-24
Frost Apr 17-24
Moon Apr 19-24
Aug 14
Cilantro (Coriander)N/AN/AFrost May 8-22
Moon May 19-22
May 29
CollardsFrost Mar 27-Apr 10
Moon Mar 27-Apr 5
Frost Apr 24-May 8
Moon Apr 24-May 5
Frost Apr 17-24
Moon Apr 19-24
Jul 31
CornN/AN/AFrost May 22-Jun 5
Moon May 22-Jun 3
Jul 24
CucumbersFrost Apr 17-24
Moon Apr 19-24
Frost May 15-29
Moon May 19-29
Frost May 22-29
Moon May 22-29
Jul 31
DillN/AN/AFrost May 1-22
Moon May 1- 5, May 19-22
Aug 14
EggplantsFrost Mar 13-27
Moon Mar 21-27
Frost May 22-29
Moon May 22-29
N/AJul 31
Fava Beans (Broad Beans)N/AN/AFrost Apr 10-17
May 22
GarlicN/AN/AN/A
Green BeansN/AN/AFrost May 15-Jun 5
Moon May 19-Jun 3
Jul 31
Jalapeño PeppersFrost Feb 26-Mar 13
Moon Feb 26-Mar 7
Frost May 22-29
Moon May 22-29
N/A
KaleFrost Mar 13-27
Moon Mar 21-27
Frost Apr 24-May 8
Moon Apr 24-May 5
Frost Apr 10-17
May 22
KohlrabiFrost Mar 27-Apr 10
Moon Mar 27-Apr 5
Frost Apr 17-24
Moon Apr 19-24
Frost Apr 10-17
May 22
LettuceFrost Mar 27-Apr 10
Moon Mar 27-Apr 5
Frost Apr 17-24
Moon Apr 19-24
Frost Apr 10-17
May 22
OkraFrost Apr 10-24
Moon Apr 19-24
Frost May 22-29
Moon May 22-29
Frost May 22-Jun 5
Moon May 22-Jun 3
Jul 31
Onion SetsN/AFrost Apr 10-24
Moon Apr 10-18
N/AJul 3
OreganoFrost Feb 26-Mar 27
Moon Feb 26-Mar 7, Mar 21-27
Frost May 15-29
Moon May 19-29
N/AJul 31
ParsleyFrost Feb 26-Mar 13
Moon Feb 26-Mar 7
Frost May 15-29
Moon May 19-29
Frost Apr 10-May 15
Moon Apr 19-May 5
Jul 24
ParsnipsN/AN/AFrost Apr 10-17
Moon Apr 10-17
Jul 3
PeasN/AN/AFrost Apr 10-17
May 22
PotatoesN/AN/AFrost Apr 10-24
Moon Apr 10-18
Jul 31
PumpkinsFrost Apr 17-May 1
Moon Apr 19-May 1
Frost May 22-29
Moon May 22-29
Frost May 22-29
Moon May 22-29
Jun 26
RadishesN/AN/AFrost Apr 10-17
Moon Apr 10-17
Aug 14
RosemaryFrost Feb 12-26
Moon Feb 20-26
Frost May 22-29
Moon May 22-29
N/AAug 14
SageFrost Mar 13-27
Moon Mar 21-27
Frost May 15-29
Moon May 19-29
N/AJul 24
SpinachFrost Mar 27-Apr 10
Moon Mar 27-Apr 5
Frost Apr 17-24
Moon Apr 19-24
Frost Apr 10-17
May 22
Sweet PotatoesN/AN/AFrost May 22-Jun 5
Moon Jun 4- 5
Jun 26
Swiss ChardFrost Mar 27-Apr 10
Moon Mar 27-Apr 5
Frost Apr 24-May 8
Moon Apr 24-May 5
Frost Apr 17-May 8
Moon Apr 19-May 5
May 22
ThymeFrost Feb 26-Mar 13
Moon Feb 26-Mar 7
Frost May 15-22
Moon May 19-22
N/AJul 17
TomatillosFrost Mar 27-Apr 10
Moon Mar 27-Apr 5
Frost May 22-Jun 5
Moon May 22-Jun 3
N/AJul 24
TomatoesFrost Mar 13-27
Moon Mar 21-27
Frost May 22-29
Moon May 22-29
N/AJul 10
TurnipsN/AN/AFrost Apr 10-17
Moon Apr 10-17
Sep 11
WatermelonsFrost Apr 17-May 1
Moon Apr 19-May 1
Frost May 22-29
Moon May 22-29
Frost May 15-22
Moon May 19-22
Jul 10
Winter SquashFrost Apr 17-24
Moon Apr 19-24
Frost May 15-29
Moon May 19-29
Frost May 22-29
Moon May 22-29
Jun 19
Zucchini and Summer SquashFrost Apr 17-24
Moon Apr 19-24
Frost May 15-29
Moon May 19-29
Frost May 22-29
Moon May 22-29
Aug 7
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