Planting Calendar for Duluth, MN

For the Almanac's fall and spring planting calendars, we've calculated the best time to start seeds indoors, when to transplant young plants outside, and when to direct seed into the ground.

Planting Dates for Spring

On average, your last spring frost occurs on May 25 (at DULUTH, MN climate station).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Moon Based on Moon Dates
Start Seeds IndoorsPlant Seedlings
or Transplants
Start Seeds Outdoors
ArugulaN/AN/AFrost May 11-25
Moon May 11-15
BasilFrost Mar 30-Apr 13
Moon Apr 1-13
Frost May 25-Jun 15
Moon May 30-Jun 14
N/A
BeetsN/AN/AFrost May 11-Jun 1
Moon May 16-29
Bell PeppersFrost Mar 16-30
Moon Mar 16-18
Frost Jun 1-15
Moon Jun 1-14
N/A
BroccoliFrost Mar 30-Apr 13
Moon Apr 1-13
Frost Apr 27-May 18
Moon Apr 30-May 15
N/A
CabbageFrost Mar 30-Apr 13
Moon Apr 1-13
Frost Apr 27-May 11
Moon Apr 30-May 11
N/A
CantaloupesFrost Apr 27-May 4
Moon Apr 30-May 4
Frost Jun 8-22
Moon Jun 8-14
N/A
CarrotsN/AN/AFrost Apr 20-May 4
Moon Apr 20-29
CauliflowerFrost Mar 30-Apr 13
Moon Apr 1-13
Frost Apr 27-May 18
Moon Apr 30-May 15
N/A
CeleryFrost Mar 16-30
Moon Mar 16-18
Frost Jun 1-15
Moon Jun 1-14
N/A
ChivesN/AN/AFrost Apr 27-May 4
Moon Apr 30-May 4
Cilantro (Coriander)N/AN/AFrost May 25-Jun 8
Moon May 30-Jun 8
CornN/AN/AFrost May 25-Jun 8
Moon May 30-Jun 8
CucumbersFrost Apr 27-May 4
Moon Apr 30-May 4
Frost Jun 8-22
Moon Jun 8-14
N/A
DillN/AN/AFrost Apr 20-May 4
Moon Apr 30-May 4
EggplantsFrost Mar 16-30
Moon Mar 16-18
Frost Jun 8-22
Moon Jun 8-14
N/A
Green BeansN/AN/AFrost Jun 1-22
Moon Jun 1-14
KaleFrost Mar 30-Apr 13
Moon Apr 1-13
Frost Apr 27-May 18
Moon Apr 30-May 15
N/A
KohlrabiFrost Apr 13-27
Moon Apr 13-16
Frost May 4-11
Moon May 4-11
N/A
LettuceFrost Apr 13-27
Moon Apr 13-16
Frost May 11-Jun 8
Moon May 11-15, May 30-Jun 8
N/A
OkraN/AN/AFrost Jun 8-22
Moon Jun 8-14
OnionsN/AN/AFrost Apr 27-May 18
Moon Apr 27-29, May 16-18
OreganoFrost Mar 16-Apr 13
Moon Mar 16-18, Apr 1-13
Frost May 25-Jun 15
Moon May 30-Jun 14
N/A
ParsleyN/AN/AFrost Apr 27-May 11
Moon Apr 30-May 11
ParsnipsN/AN/AFrost May 4-25
Moon May 16-25
PeasN/AN/AFrost Apr 13-May 4
Moon Apr 13-16, Apr 30-May 4
PotatoesN/AN/AFrost May 18-Jun 8
Moon May 18-29
PumpkinsFrost May 4-18
Moon May 4-15
Frost Jun 8-22
Moon Jun 8-14
N/A
RadishesN/AN/AFrost Mar 30-Apr 20
Moon Mar 30-31, Apr 17-20
RosemaryFrost Mar 16-30
Moon Mar 16-18
Frost Jun 1-22
Moon Jun 1-14
N/A
SageFrost Mar 30-Apr 13
Moon Apr 1-13
Frost May 25-Jun 8
Moon May 30-Jun 8
N/A
SpinachN/AN/AFrost Apr 13-May 4
Moon Apr 13-16, Apr 30-May 4
Sweet PotatoesFrost Apr 27-May 4
Moon Apr 27-29
Frost Jun 8-22
Moon Jun 15-22
N/A
Swiss ChardFrost Apr 13-27
Moon Apr 13-16
Frost May 4-11
Moon May 4-11
N/A
ThymeFrost Mar 16-Apr 13
Moon Mar 16-18, Apr 1-13
Frost May 25-Jun 15
Moon May 30-Jun 14
N/A
TomatoesFrost Mar 30-Apr 13
Moon Apr 1-13
Frost Jun 1-22
Moon Jun 1-14
N/A
TurnipsN/AN/AFrost Apr 27-May 18
Moon Apr 27-29, May 16-18
WatermelonsFrost Apr 27-May 4
Moon Apr 30-May 4
Frost Jun 8-22
Moon Jun 8-14
N/A
ZucchiniFrost Apr 27-May 11
Moon Apr 30-May 11
Frost Jun 8-22
Moon Jun 8-14
N/A

Planting Dates for Fall

On average, your first fall frost occurs on September 22 (at DULUTH, MN climate station).
CropFrost Based on Frost Dates
Start Seeds Indoors by...Plant Seedlings Outdoors by...Start Seeds Outdoors by...
ArugulaN/AN/AFrost Aug 18
BeetsN/AN/AFrost Aug 8
Bell PeppersFrost Apr 9Frost June 15N/A
BroccoliFrost Jun 11Frost Jul 9N/A
CabbageFrost Jun 1Frost Jun 29N/A
CantaloupesN/AN/AFrost June 22
CarrotsN/AN/AFrost Aug 3
CauliflowerFrost Jun 11Frost Jul 9N/A
CeleryFrost Mar 31Frost June 15N/A
CornN/AN/AFrost Jun 14
CucumbersN/AN/AFrost June 22
EggplantsFrost Apr 9Frost June 22N/A
Green BeansN/AN/AFrost June 22
KaleFrost Jul 1Frost Jul 29N/A
KohlrabiN/AN/AFrost Aug 3
LettuceN/AN/AFrost Aug 13
OkraN/AN/AFrost June 22
ParsnipsN/AN/AFrost Jun 19
PeasN/AN/AFrost Jul 19
PotatoesN/AN/AFrost Jul 9
PumpkinsN/AN/AFrost June 22
RadishesN/AN/AFrost Aug 18
SpinachN/AN/AFrost Aug 28
Swiss ChardN/AN/AFrost Aug 13
TomatoesFrost Apr 14Frost June 22N/A
TurnipsN/AN/AFrost Aug 13
WatermelonsN/AN/AFrost June 22
ZucchiniN/AN/AFrost Jun 24

How to Use the Planting Calendar

This planting calendar is a guide that tells you the best time to start planting your garden based on frost dates. Our planting calendar is customized to your nearest weather station in order to give you the most accurate information possible. Please note:

  • The "Frost Dates" indicate the best planting dates based on your local average frost dates. Average frost dates are based on historical weather data and are the planting guideline used by most gardeners. Although frost dates are a good way to know approximately when to start gardening, always check a local forecast before planting outdoors!
  • The "Plant Seedlings or Transplants" dates indicate the best time to plant young plants outdoors. This includes plants grown from seed indoors at home and small starter plants bought from a nursery.
  • When no dates ("N/A") appear in the chart, that starting method is typically not recommended for that particular plant, although it likely still possible. See each plant's individual Growing Guide for more specific planting information. 
  • The "Moon Dates" indicate the best planting dates based on your local frost dates and Moon phases. Planting by the Moon is considered a more traditional technique. We use Moon-favorable dates at the very start of the gardening season. It's a little complex for a fall planting.

To plan your garden more accurately in the future, keep a record of your garden's conditions each year, including frost dates and seed-starting dates!

Frequently Asked Questions

Why Do You Start Seeds Indoors?

Starting seeds indoors (in seed trays or starter pots) gives your crops a head start on the growing season, which is especially important in regions with a short growing season. Starting seeds indoors also provides young, tender plants a chance to grow in a stable, controlled environment. Outdoors, the unpredictability of rain, drought, frost, low and high temperatures, sunlight, and pests and diseases can take a toll on young plants, especially when they're just getting started. Indoors, you can control these elements to maximize your plants' early growth and give them the best shot at thriving when they are eventually transplanted outdoors. 

For most crops that can be started indoors, seeds should be started about 6-8 weeks before your last spring frost date. This gives the plants plenty of time to grow large and healthy enough to survive their eventual transplanting to the garden. Read more about starting seeds indoors here

Which Seeds Should Be Started Indoors?

Not all vegetables should be started indoors! In fact, most are better off being started directly in the garden (aka "direct-sown"). The crops that should be started indoors are those that are particularly susceptible to cold temperatures or that have a very long growing season and need a head start. These include tender vegetables such as tomatoes, peppers, and eggplant, as well as crops with a long growing season, like broccoli, cauliflower, and brussels sprouts. 

Most other crops do best when sown directly into the garden soil. Root crops, including carrots, radishes, and beets, are especially well-suited to being started directly in the garden, since they do not like having their roots disturbed after planting. The same is true for squash and watermelon, though care must be taken to plant them when the soil is warm enough. Read more about direct-sowing seeds here!

How Is Planting for a Fall Harvest Different? 

Planting in late summer for a fall harvest has many benefits (soil is already warm, temperatures are cooler, fewer pests). However, the challenge is getting your crops harvested before the winter frosts begin. When we calculate fall planting dates (which are really in the summer), we must account for several factors, such as the time to harvest once the crop is mature and whether a crop is tender or hardy when it comes to frost. The "days to maturity" of a crop and the length of your growing season also factor into whether you start seeds early indoors or directly sow seeds into the ground outside. Note:

  • Warm-weather veggies like beanscornsquashespumpkinscucumberscantaloupe, and watermelons are all sown directly into the ground.
  • Tender heat-loving plants such as tomatoespeppers, and eggplants take a long time to mature and have a lengthy harvesting period, so we generally don't plant a second round of these crops for fall, as they won't ripen in time. (In regions with mild winters, this may not be the case.) These crops are typically started indoors early in the season and transplanted.
  • Root vegetables (beetscarrots) do not transplant well, so start seeds directly in the soil outside.
  • Peas are also best seeded into the ground; do not transplant.
  • Cole crops like broccolicauliflowerkale, and cabbage could be direct seeded, but because of the heat of mid- and late summer, it's better to start them indoors and then transplant them into the garden.
  • We tend to direct-sow leafy greens such as lettucechard, and spinach, though some gardeners will also sow indoors. It depends on your climate.
  • Note that garlic is not included in our planting chart. It's a popular fall crop, but the dates vary wildly based on location and it's really best to gauge garlic planting dates with a soil thermometer. When the soil temperature is 60°F (15.6°C) at a depth of 4 inches, then plant your garlic. We'd advise checking our Garlic Growing Guide for more information. 

Read more about the "Best Vegetables to Plant in the Fall."

When Should You Transplant Seedlings?

When seedlings have grown too large for their seed trays or starter pots, it's time to transplant. If it's not yet warm enough to plant outdoors, transplant the seedlings to larger plastic or peat pots indoors and continue care. If outdoor conditions allow, start hardening off your seedlings approximately one week before your last frost date, then transplant them into the garden. Get more tips for transplanting seedlings.

What Is Planting by the Moon?

Planting by the Moon (also called "Gardening by the Moon") is a traditional way to plant your above- and below-ground crops, especially at the start of the season. Here's how it works:

  • Plant annual flowers and vegetables that bear crops above ground during the light, or waxing, of the Moon. In other words, plant from the day the Moon is new until the day it is full.
  • Plant flowering bulbs, biennial and perennial flowers, and vegetables that bear crops below ground during the dark, or waning, of the Moon. In other words, plant from the day after the Moon is full until the day before it is new again.

Old-time farmers swear that this practice results in a larger, tastier harvest, so we've included planting by the Moon dates in our planting calendar, too. Learn more about Planting and Gardening by the Moon.